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新疆巴里坤石人子沟遗址群出土玻璃珠的成分分析

Chemical Analysis of Ancient Glass Beads from Shirenzigou Sites in Balikun County, Xinjiang

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摘要

巴里坤县位于新疆东部哈密地区, 是连接内地与北疆的重要通道, 巴里坤县境内的石人子沟遗址群是新疆东天山地区的古代游牧民族大型聚落遗址, 其中西沟遗址M1墓和石人子沟遗址M011墓分别出土了一批战国晚期至西汉早期的古代玻璃珠, 为了解这批玻璃珠的来源, 采用激光剥蚀电感耦合等离子体发射光谱(LA-ICP-AES)和激光拉曼光谱(LRS)方法对这两批玻璃珠样品进行化学成分分析。 结果表明, 西沟遗址M1墓出土玻璃珠均为钠钙玻璃体系, 以植物灰作为助熔剂, 同时其中七件绿色玻璃珠样品均以锑酸铅作为乳浊剂; 石人子沟遗址M011墓出土玻璃珠均为铅钡玻璃体系, 以含铅矿物作为助熔剂。 与同时期其他已经发表的玻璃数据进行比较, 显示西沟遗址出土玻璃珠在成分上与美索不达米亚及古埃及钠钙玻璃不同, 推测西沟遗址出土玻璃珠在中亚或新疆地区制作而成; 石人子沟遗址出土玻璃珠的化学组成相对集中, 应在同一地点制作而成, 可能为中原地区传入。 本研究证实了新疆巴里坤地区是古代东西方物质文化交流的重要节点, 而游牧民族在玻璃制品传播和交流过程中扮演着重要的角色。

Abstract

Balikun County is located in the Hami region of eastern Xinjiang which is the junction point connecting central China and northern Xinjiang, Shirenzigou sites in the Balikun County was a great nomadic tribe settlement in the eastern Tianshan Mountains. The glass beads excavated from the tomb of M011 in the Shirenzigou site and the tomb of M1 in the Xigou site, which can be dated back to late Warring States to the early West Han dynasty (3rd century B.C—1st century B.C). To understand the provenance of these glass beads, the chemical composition of these glass beads were analyzed through the examinations of LA-ICP-AES and LRS. The results showed that the glass beads from the Xigou site were all Na2O-CaO-SiO2 system; with plant ash as flux, the lead antimonite were used as opacifying agents of seven green glass beads. Meanwhile, the glass beads from the Shirenzigou site were PbO-BaO- SiO2 system, the lead were used as flux. Compared with the contemporaneous glass beads, the result illustrated that the chemical composition of glass beads from the Xigou site were different from the Egyptian or Mesopotamian Na2O-CaO-SiO2 glass, it was highly plausible that the glass beads were manufactured in the central Asia or Xinjiang region; while the chemical composition of glass beads from the Shirenzigou site were relatively centralized, which showed they were manufactured from the same place, the glass beads from the Shirenzigou site were imported from the central region of China. The study confirmed that the Balikun was an important place for the communication of material culture between the East and the West; meanwhile the nomadic people played a significant role for the spread and communication of glass beads.

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中图分类号:K876.5

DOI:10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2016)09-2961-05

基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(51302217, 11575142), 国家社科基金重大招标项目(14ZDB052)资助

收稿日期:2015-07-06

修改稿日期:2015-11-18

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作者单位    点击查看

温 睿:西北大学文化遗产研究与保护技术教育部重点实验室, 西北大学文化遗产学院, 陕西 西安 710069
赵志强:西北大学文化遗产研究与保护技术教育部重点实验室, 西北大学文化遗产学院, 陕西 西安 710069湖南省文物考古研究所, 湖南 长沙 410003
马 健:西北大学文化遗产研究与保护技术教育部重点实验室, 西北大学文化遗产学院, 陕西 西安 710069
王建新:西北大学文化遗产研究与保护技术教育部重点实验室, 西北大学文化遗产学院, 陕西 西安 710069

联系人作者:温睿(rwen80@163.com)

备注:温 睿, 1980年生, 西北大学文化遗产学院副教授

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引用该论文

WEN Rui,ZHAO Zhi-qiang,MA Jian,WANG Jian-xin. Chemical Analysis of Ancient Glass Beads from Shirenzigou Sites in Balikun County, Xinjiang[J]. Spectroscopy and Spectral Analysis, 2016, 36(9): 2961-2965

温 睿,赵志强,马 健,王建新. 新疆巴里坤石人子沟遗址群出土玻璃珠的成分分析[J]. 光谱学与光谱分析, 2016, 36(9): 2961-2965

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