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北京市交通环境大气氨污染水平分析

Analysis of Atmosoheric Ammonia Pollution Level in Beijing Traffic Environment

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摘要

机动车作为大气PM2.5的重要污染源,其运行产生的氨气(NH3)能与大气中的酸性气体相结合,形成二次污染物。为掌握北京市交通环境中NH3的排放情况, 探索影响交通环境NH3浓度的因素及关系,利用DOAS仪器对交通环境(北航东门天桥下)和城市环境(北京市环境保护监测中心楼顶)NH3的浓度进行 持续7个月的观测。结果显示污染物的排放量总体呈现夏季低、春秋季高的特点,交通环境中NH3的日平均浓度水平(25.19 μg /m3)高于 城市环境(15.90 μg /m3)。全天浓度变化趋势稳定,均有明显的高峰低谷变化,表明交通污染源对大气NH3的贡献较为稳定。从相关性分析 可以看出, NH3与PM2.5、NO2、NOx、CO相关性较高,与NO相关性较弱。分析得出3级以上的风有利于NH3浓度的快速扩散和降低。 对学院路全年各类型机动车排放量和逐小时的排放量进行计算,得到NH3排放量主要来自小型客车(汽油)和出租车(汽油)(占97.9%)。

Abstract

Ammonia(NH3) generated from vehicles which is an important source of atmospheric PM2.5 can react with the acidic gases in the atmosphere to produce ammonium salt. To understand the emission of atmospheric NH3 in the traffic environment of Beijing City, China, and find the factors which affect the NH3 concentration of traffic environment and relationship between them, NH3 concentration at two observation sites was collected during the seven-month observatory experiment using DOAS instrument. One observation site was located in a typical traffic environment close to the eastern gate of Beihang University (BH), the other one was located on the top of the seven-floor building in a typical downtown environment (BMEMC). The analytical result showed that the emission of pollutants is generally low in summer and high in spring and autumn and the 24 h NH3 concentration at the BH site (25.19 μg /m3) was higher than that at the BMEMC site (15.90 μg /m3). The change trend of concentration in whole day is stable, and there are obvious peaks and troughs, which indicates that the contribution of traffic pollution sources to NH3 is stable. The correlation analysis indicated that NH3 concentration was well correlated with the concentrations of PM2.5, NO2, NOx and CO, but only weakly correlated with the concentrations of NO. It is concluded that the wind above Grade 3 is beneficial to the rapid diffusion and reduction of ammonia concentration. After calculating the yearly emissions and hourly emissions of all types of motor vehicles in Xueyuan Road, the result shows that NH3 mainly comes from small passenger cars (gasoline) and taxis (gasoline) (97.9%).

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中图分类号:X511

DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1673-6141.2018.03.005

所属栏目:环境光学监测技术

基金项目:Supported by Science and Technology Project of Beijing (北京市科技计划课题, Z131100001113029)

收稿日期:2016-09-01

修改稿日期:2018-02-07

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程刚:北京市环境保护监测中心, 北京 100048大气颗粒物监测技术北京市重点实验室,北京 100048
段俊:中国科学院安徽光学精密机械研究所中国科学院环境光学与技术重点实验室, 安徽 合肥 230031
李金香:北京市环境保护监测中心, 北京 100048大气颗粒物监测技术北京市重点实验室,北京 100048
秦敏:中国科学院安徽光学精密机械研究所中国科学院环境光学与技术重点实验室, 安徽 合肥 230031
王欣:北京市环境保护监测中心, 北京 100048大气颗粒物监测技术北京市重点实验室,北京 100048
李云婷:北京市环境保护监测中心, 北京 100048大气颗粒物监测技术北京市重点实验室,北京 100048
张大伟:北京市环境保护监测中心, 北京 100048大气颗粒物监测技术北京市重点实验室,北京 100048

联系人作者:李金香(jinxiangli@hotmail.com)

备注:程刚 (1987-),男, 汉族,浙江衢州人,硕士,工程师,主要从事大气污染物排放清单方面的研究。

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引用该论文

CHENG Gang,DUAN Jun,LI Jinxiang,QIN Min,WANG Xin,LI Yunting,ZHANG Dawei. Analysis of Atmosoheric Ammonia Pollution Level in Beijing Traffic Environment[J]. Journal of Atmospheric and Environmental Optics, 2018, 13(3): 193-207

程刚,段俊,李金香,秦敏,王欣,李云婷,张大伟. 北京市交通环境大气氨污染水平分析[J]. 大气与环境光学学报, 2018, 13(3): 193-207

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