Nonlinear optical performance of few-layer molybdenum diselenide as a slow-saturable absorber
Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides are considered promising materials for next-generation photonics and nano-optical devices. Although many previous reports have shown saturable absorption of molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2), these nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of MoSe2 were measured in separate works and under different conditions with their hot-carrier relaxations. Here, we conducted a series of coherent studies on the NLO properties of few-layer MoSe2 via open-aperture Z-scan and degenerate pump-probe techniques. These measurements were taken to test the materials’ capabilities as a slow-saturable absorber. A slow-absorber model was employed to analyze the NLO measurements, and the results show that the NLO modulation depth was modeled to be 7.4% and 15.1% for the linear absorption coefficients of 5.22 cm?1 and 6.51 cm?1, respectively. The corresponding saturated intensities were modeled to be 39.37 MW/cm2 and 234.75 MW/cm2, respectively. The excitation carrier recovery time of few-layer MoSe2 was measured by degenerate pump-probe techniques to be ～220 ps. These nonlinear optical performances make it a promising slow-saturable absorber for passive mode locking in femtosecond lasers.
基金项目：Science Foundation Ireland (SFI)10.13039/501100001602 (12/IA/1306); Seventh Framework Programme (FP7)10.13039/100011102 (ISLA project no. 287732); National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC)10.13039/501100001809 (61522510, 61675217, 11704261, 11575118); Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)10.13039/501100002367 (XDB16030700); Key Research Program of Frontier Science of Chinese Academy of Sciences (QYZDB-SSW-JSC041); the Program of Shanghai Academic Research Leader (17XD1403900); Shenzhen Key Lab Fund (ZDSYS 20170228105421966).
Guangxing Liang：Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Advanced Thin Films and Applications, College of Physics and Energy, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China
Aidan A. Baker-Murray：School of Physics and the Centre for Research on Adaptive Nanostructures and Nanodevices (CRANN), Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland
Kangpeng Wang：School of Physics and the Centre for Research on Adaptive Nanostructures and Nanodevices (CRANN), Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Irelande-mail: email@example.com
Jing Jing Wang：School of Physics and the Centre for Research on Adaptive Nanostructures and Nanodevices (CRANN), Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland
Xiaoyan Zhang：Key Laboratory of Materials for High-Power Laser, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800, China
Daniel Bennett：School of Physics and the Centre for Research on Adaptive Nanostructures and Nanodevices (CRANN), Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland
Jing-Ting Luo：Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Advanced Thin Films and Applications, College of Physics and Energy, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, Chinae-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Jun Wang：Key Laboratory of Materials for High-Power Laser, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800, China
Ping Fan：Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Advanced Thin Films and Applications, College of Physics and Energy, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China
Werner J. Blau：School of Physics and the Centre for Research on Adaptive Nanostructures and Nanodevices (CRANN), Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland
【1】K. Wang, Y. Feng, C. Chang, J. Zhan, C. Wang, Q. Zhao, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of layered molybdenum dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Nanoscale 6 , 10530–10535 (2014).
【2】P. Tonndorf, R. Schmidt, P. B?ttger, X. Zhang, J. B?rner, A. Liebig, M. Albrecht, C. Kloc, O. Gordan, and D. R. Zahn, “Photoluminescence emission and Raman response of monolayer MoS2, MoSe2, and WSe2,” Opt. Express 21 , 4908–4916 (2013).
【3】S. Tongay, J. Zhou, C. Ataca, K. Lo, T. S. Matthews, J. Li, J. C. Grossman, and J. Wu, “Thermally driven crossover from indirect toward direct bandgap in 2D semiconductors: MoSe2 versus MoS2,” Nano Lett. 12 , 5576–5580 (2012).
【4】G. Wang, S. Zhang, X. Zhang, L. Zhang, Y. Cheng, D. Fox, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Tunable nonlinear refractive index of two-dimensional MoS2, WS2, and MoSe2 nanosheet dispersions,” Photon. Res. 3 , A51–A55 (2015).
【5】Z. Luo, D. Wu, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, J. Weng, S. Xu, C. Zhu, and F. Wang, “Two-dimensional material-based saturable absorbers: towards compact visible-wavelength all-fiber pulsed lasers,” Nanoscale 8 , 1066–1072 (2016).
【6】R. Sharma, J. Aneesh, R. K. Yadav, S. Sanda, A. Barik, A. K. Mishra, T. K. Maji, D. Karmakar, and K. Adarsh, “Strong interlayer coupling mediated giant two-photon absorption in MoSe2/graphene oxide heterostructure: quenching of exciton bands,” Phys. Rev. B 93 , 155433 (2016).
【7】J. R. Schaibley, T. Karin, H. Yu, J. S. Ross, P. Rivera, A. M. Jones, M. E. Scott, J. Yan, D. Mandrus, and W. Yao, “Population pulsation resonances of excitons in monolayer MoSe2 with sub-1??μeV linewidths,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114 , 137402 (2015).
【8】N. Dong, Y. Li, Y. Feng, S. Zhang, X. Zhang, C. Chang, J. Fan, L. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Optical limiting and theoretical modelling of layered transition metal dichalcogenide nanosheets,” Sci. Rep. 5 , 14646 (2015).
【9】J. Koo, J. Park, J. Lee, Y. M. Jhon, and J. H. Lee, “Femtosecond harmonic mode-locking of a fiber laser at 3.27??GHz using a bulk-like, MoSe2-based saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 24 , 10575–10589 (2016).
【10】G. Wang, K. Wang, B. M. Szyd?owska, A. A. Baker-Murray, J. J. Wang, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, J. Wang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast nonlinear optical properties of a graphene saturable mirror in the 2??μm wavelength region,” Laser Photon. Rev. 11 , 1700166 (2017).
【11】N. Kumar, Q. Cui, F. Ceballos, D. He, Y. Wang, and H. Zhao, “Exciton-exciton annihilation in MoSe2 monolayers,” Phys. Rev. B 89 , 125427 (2014).
【12】F. Gao, Y. Gong, M. Titze, R. Almeida, P. M. Ajayan, and H. Li, “Valley trion dynamics in monolayer MoSe2,” Phys. Rev. B 94 , 245413 (2016).
【13】A. Singh, G. Moody, S. Wu, Y. Wu, N. J. Ghimire, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, X. Xu, and X. Li, “Coherent electronic coupling in atomically thin MoSe2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112 , 216804 (2014).
【14】J. N. Coleman, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, S. D. Bergin, P. J. King, U. Khan, K. Young, A. Gaucher, S. De, and R. J. Smith, “Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials,” Science 331 , 568–571 (2011).
【15】Y. Ding, Y. Wang, J. Ni, L. Shi, S. Shi, and W. Tang, “First principles study of structural, vibrational and electronic properties of graphene-like MX2 (M?=?Mo, Nb, W, Ta; X?=?S, Se, Te) monolayers,” Physica B 406 , 2254–2260 (2011).
【16】J. C. Shaw, H. Zhou, Y. Chen, N. O. Weiss, Y. Liu, Y. Huang, and X. Duan, “Chemical vapor deposition growth of monolayer MoSe2 nanosheets,” Nano Res. 7 , 511–517 (2014).
【17】Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19 , 3077–3083 (2009).
【18】Y. Feng, N. Dong, G. Wang, Y. Li, S. Zhang, K. Wang, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Saturable absorption behavior of free-standing graphene polymer composite films over broad wavelength and time ranges,” Opt. Express 23 , 559–569 (2015).
【19】K. Wang, B. M. Szyd?owska, G. Wang, X. Zhang, J. J. Wang, J. J. Magan, L. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, J. Wang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast nonlinear excitation dynamics of black phosphorus nanosheets from visible to mid-infrared,” ACS Nano 10 , 6923–6932 (2016).
【20】K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, and Q. Zhao, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7 , 9260–9267 (2013).
【21】C. Luo, Y. Wang, F. Chen, H. Shih, and T. Kobayashi, “Eliminate coherence spike in reflection-type pump-probe measurements,” Opt. Express 17 , 11321–11327 (2009).
【22】Z. Nie, C. Trovatello, E. A. Pogna, S. Dal Conte, P. B. Miranda, E. Kelleher, C. Zhu, I. C. E. Turcu, Y. Xu, and K. Liu, “Broadband nonlinear optical response of monolayer MoSe2 under ultrafast excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112 , 031108 (2018).
【23】C. Trovatello, Z. Nie, E. A. A. Pogna, S. D. Conte, P. Miranda, G. Cerullo, and F. Wang, “Ultrafast characterization of saturable absorption in monolayer MoSe2,” in Graphene , Barcelona, Spain (2017).
【24】Z. Burshtein, P. Blau, Y. Kalisky, Y. Shimony, and M. Kikta, “Excited-state absorption studies of Cr4+ ions in several garnet host crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34 , 292–299 (1998).
【25】J. Huang, N. Dong, S. Zhang, Z. Sun, W. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Nonlinear absorption induced transparency and optical limiting of black phosphorus nanosheets,” ACS Photon. 4 , 3063–3070 (2017).
Gaozhong Wang, Guangxing Liang, Aidan A. Baker-Murray, Kangpeng Wang, Jing Jing Wang, Xiaoyan Zhang, Daniel Bennett, Jing-Ting Luo, Jun Wang, Ping Fan, and Werner J. Blau, "Nonlinear optical performance of few-layer molybdenum diselenide as a slow-saturable absorber," Photonics Research 6(7), 674-680 (2018)