Conceptual design of an experiment to study dust destruction by astrophysical shock waves
A novel laboratory experimental design is described that will investigate the processing of dust grains in astrophysical shocks. Dust is a ubiquitous ingredient in the interstellar medium (ISM) of galaxies; however, its evolutionary cycle is still poorly understood. Especially shrouded in mystery is the efficiency of grain destruction by astrophysical shocks generated by expanding supernova remnants. While the evolution of these remnants is fairly well understood, the grain destruction efficiency in these shocks is largely unknown. The experiments described herein will fill this knowledge gap by studying the dust destruction efficiencies for shock velocities in the range $｛\sim｝10｛-｝30~\text｛km｝/\text｛s｝$ ($\unicode[STIX]｛x03BC｝\text｛m｝/\text｛ns｝$), at which most of the grain destruction and processing in the ISM takes place. The experiments focus on the study of grain–grain collisions by accelerating small ($｛\sim｝1~\unicode[STIX]｛x03BC｝\text｛m｝$) dust particles into a large ($｛\sim｝5｛-｝10~\unicode[STIX]｛x03BC｝\text｛m｝$ diameter) population; this simulates the astrophysical system well in that the more numerous, small grains impact and collide with the large population. Facilities that combine the versatility of high-power optical lasers with the diagnostic capabilities of X-ray free-electron lasers, e.g., the Matter in Extreme Conditions instrument at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, provide an ideal laboratory environment to create and diagnose dust destruction by astrophysically relevant shocks at the micron scale.
基金项目：Special thanks are given to David Montgomery for help in simulating X-ray phase-contrast images and Bob Nagler for in-depth discussions of the capabilities of the MEC instrument of the LCLS at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. This work was funded by the US Department of Energy, through the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in High-Energy-Density Laboratory Plasmas, grant number DE-NA0001840. Additional support for this work was provided by NASA through Einstein Postdoctoral Fellowship grant number PF3-140111 awarded by the Chandra X-ray Center, which is operated by the Astrophysical Observatory for NASA under contract NAS8-03060.
T. Temim：Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
E. Dwek：Observational Cosmology Lab, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA
A.?M. Angulo：Climate and Space Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
P.?X. Belancourt：Climate and Space Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
R.?P. Drake：Climate and Space Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
C. C. Kuranz：Climate and Space Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
M. J. MacDonald：Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
B. A. Remington：Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94450, USA
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M.?J.-E. Manuel, T. Temim, E. Dwek, A.?M. Angulo, P.?X. Belancourt, R.?P. Drake, C. C. Kuranz, M. J. MacDonald, and B. A. Remington, "Conceptual design of an experiment to study dust destruction by astrophysical shock waves," High Power Laser Science and Engineering 6(3), e39 (2018)