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光丝距对激光-电弧复合焊接熔池表面流动的影响

Effect of Laser-Arc Distance on Surface Flow of Laser-GMAW Hybrid Welding Molten Pool

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摘要

在焊接过程中, 熔池的流动特征与气孔、咬边等缺陷密切相关, 对熔池的结晶过程以及焊缝成形也有重要影响。以低合金高强钢为研究对象, 通过钻孔填埋ZrO2颗粒作为示踪粒子, 利用高速相机记录匙孔位置、电弧形态及熔池的流动特征, 研究了不同光丝距下激光-电弧复合焊接熔池表面的流动规律。结果表明:当光丝距为1 mm时, 匙孔位置不稳定, 发生了漂移现象, 示踪粒子绕过电弧作用区后沿中轴线流向后方; 当光丝距增加至3 mm时, 匙孔位置相对稳定, 但示踪粒子在流动过程中出现了典型的卡门涡街现象; 随着光丝距进一步增加至5 mm时, 匙孔位置稳定, 但示踪粒子在流经激光与电弧中间区域时出现了停滞现象, 此条件下示踪粒子的运动距离最大。通过对比三种光丝距下的焊缝截面形貌可以发现:当光丝距为1 mm时, 焊缝底部存在气孔缺陷, 这是光丝距过小导致匙孔不稳定而造成的工艺性气孔; 当光丝距为5 mm时, 两热源间距过大, 导致两热源的耦合效率下降, 熔深显著减小; 当光丝距为3 mm时, 焊缝无缺陷, 且熔深最大。

Abstract

In welding process, the flow characteristics of molten pool are closely related to the defects such as porosity, undercut and so on. It also has important influence on the crystallization process of molten pool and weld formation. The research objects of low-alloy high-strength steel are drilled holes and then filled with ZrO2 particles as tracer particles. And the position of keyhole, arc shape and flow characteristics of molten pool are recorded by high speed camera. The flow law of the molten pool surface during laser-GMAW hybrid welding is studied at different laser-arc distances. The results show that when the laser-arc distance is 1 mm, the keyhole is unstable and drift occurs. At the same time, the tracer particle flows to the rear along the central axis after circumventing the arc action zone. When the laser-arc distance is 3 mm, the position of the keyhole is relatively stable. However, the typical Karman vortex phenomenon appears during the flow of tracer particles. When the laser-arc distance is 5 mm, the keyhole position is stable, while the stagnation phenomenon of tracer particles appears as it flows through the middle region of laser keyhole and arc action zone. Under this condition, the moving distance of tracer particles is the largest. Comparing the cross-section morphology of the joints at three kinds of laser-arc distances, we can find that when the laser-arc distance is 1 mm, there are some pores at the bottom of the weld, which is caused by the unstable keyhole because of the small laser-arc distance. When the laser-arc distance is 5 mm, the distance between the two heat sources is too large, resulting in the increase of the coupling efficiency of the two heat sources, and significant decrease of the penetration depth. When the laser-arc distance is 3mm, the weld has no defect and the penetration depth is the largest.

Newport宣传-MKS新实验室计划
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中图分类号:TG456.7

DOI:10.3788/cjl201845.1002004

所属栏目:激光制造

基金项目:吉林省教育厅科学技术项目(JJKH20170613KL)、吉林省科技厅重点科技研发项目(20170204065GX, 201802010663GX)、国家重点研发计划“增材制造与激光制造”专项(2017YFB1104601)

收稿日期:2018-04-02

修改稿日期:2018-05-07

网络出版日期:2018-05-12

作者单位    点击查看

刘佳:长春理工大学机电工程学院, 吉林 长春 130022光学国际科技合作基地, 吉林 长春 130022
李忠:长春理工大学机电工程学院, 吉林 长春 130022光学国际科技合作基地, 吉林 长春 130022
石岩:长春理工大学机电工程学院, 吉林 长春 130022光学国际科技合作基地, 吉林 长春 130022
白陈明:长春理工大学机电工程学院, 吉林 长春 130022光学国际科技合作基地, 吉林 长春 130022
张宏:长春理工大学机电工程学院, 吉林 长春 130022光学国际科技合作基地, 吉林 长春 130022

联系人作者:刘佳(liujia@cust.edu.cn)

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引用该论文

Liu Jia,Li Zhong,Shi Yan,Bai Chenming,Zhang Hong. Effect of Laser-Arc Distance on Surface Flow of Laser-GMAW Hybrid Welding Molten Pool[J]. Chinese Journal of Lasers, 2018, 45(10): 1002004

刘佳,李忠,石岩,白陈明,张宏. 光丝距对激光-电弧复合焊接熔池表面流动的影响[J]. 中国激光, 2018, 45(10): 1002004

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