All-Optical Tunable Fiber Filter Based on Phosphate Glass Microspheres
提出并研究了一种基于磷酸盐玻璃微球腔的全光调谐光纤滤波器。利用自制的磷酸盐玻璃预制棒,以拉丝的方式制作出直径为200~500μm、纤芯-包层折射率差为0.004的磷酸盐玻璃光纤。利用大功率CO2激光器熔融加热光纤制备出Q值达7.28×10 5的微球腔。利用1550nm波段的可调谐激光器,通过锥形光纤耦合方式激发微球腔内回音壁模式(WGM)共振,获得带宽约 2pm、插入损耗小于0.3dB的耦合共振谱。在不同功率泵浦光的注入下,磷酸盐玻璃微球腔具有比普通石英微球腔更高的光敏感特性。实验结果表明:当微腔泵浦光功率增加时,磷酸盐玻璃微球腔内的WGM共振谱向短波长漂移(蓝移),光热调谐灵敏度约为72.727pm/mW,线性度大于0.99;在相同光功率变化下,普通石英微球腔内的WGM共振谱向长波长漂移(红移),光热调谐灵敏度约为0.086pm/mW,线性度较低。本文提出的磷酸盐玻璃微球腔全光调谐滤波器具有全光控制、结构紧凑、稳定性好、超窄带宽和调谐效率高等优势,在光纤传感和光纤通信等领域具有重要应用。
Objective A tunable fiber filter (TFF) takes an optical fiber as the medium to realize wavelength-selective reflection or transmission of optical signals. TFFs play an important role in optical fiber sensing and communication owing to their inherent merits of anti-electromagnetic disturbance, compact size, and low fabrication cost. Compared with traditional interferometer TFFs, such as Mach-Zehnder interferometer, fiber Bragg gratings, Fabry-Perot interferometers, and microstructure interferometers, an optical fiber microcavity has a high quality factor, high energy density, and whispering-gallery mode (WGM) resonance spectrum with an ultra-narrow band. Moreover, research on WGM microcavities based on new materials is of great significance for realizing an all-optical controllable TFF with high flexibility and tunable filtering. An all-optical TFF with a simple structure can eliminate the need for applying additional mechanical devices or heating devices to realize dynamic tuning. In this paper, an all-optical TFF based on phosphate glass microspheres (PGMS) is proposed to facilitate a systematic study of optic-thermal tunability. With the advantages of all-optical control, compact structure, high stability, and ultra-narrow bandwidth, all-optical TFFs based on PGMS could be widely used in fiber sensing elements or mode selection of fiber lasers, providing good application prospects in the field of optical fiber communication.
Methods The components of a PGMS microcavity coupling system include the phosphate glass optical fiber (PGOF), PGMS and single mode tapered fiber. The PGOF was prepared by preform-drawing method. After high temperature melting, stirring, pouring, annealing and cooling to room temperature slowly, the optical fiber preforms of core and cladding were prepared, respectively. Then, the PGOF was fabricated by wire drawing with the preforms and then fused and stretched by CO2 laser heating with a certain power. At the same time, the diameter changes of the PGOF were observed by high resolution microscope, and the microsphere was formed based on surface tension effect. The single mode tapered fiber with low loss and good size was tapered by controlling the cone drawing speed and hydrogen flow rate strictly. The sizes of PGMS and the single mode tapered fiber were characterized by optical microscope, including the diameter and waist width. According to the above preparations of three optical components, the WGM resonance spectrum with high Q value and low insertion loss was obtained by efficiently coupling PGMS with the single mode tapered fiber.
Results and Discussions The optic-thermal tunability of PGMS was studied by scanning WGM resonance spectrum under transient process. In the measurement of low power optic-thermal tuning, with the increase of optical pump power, the WGM resonance wavelength drifts to a shorter wavelength (blue shift). The maximum drift is about 18.25pm and the optic-thermal tunable sensitivity is about 49.46pm/mW with a linearity more than 0.99. In the test of high power optic-thermal tuning performance, the WGM resonance wavelength of PGMS drifts to the shorter wavelength (blue shift) with the increase of optical pump power. The maximum drift is about 179.58pm and the optic-thermal tunable sensitivity is around 72.727pm/mW with a linearity more than 0.99. According to the experimental results, the WGM resonance spectrum drifts and optic-thermal tuning sensitivity of PGMS increases with the increase of optical pump power. Furthermore, in order to verify the effectiveness of the experimental results, the all-optical tuning characteristics of the TFF based on silica microsphere were studied with the same method. The experimental results show that the WGM resonance wavelength of silica microsphere shifts to the longer wavelength (red shift) with the increase of optical pump power. The results of silica microsphere and PGMS are different, which depend on the characteristics of the material itself. The maximum drift is about 0.28pm and the optic-thermal tunable sensitivity is only about 0.086pm/mW with a linearity less than 0.7. By comparison, it can be seen that the all-optical TFF of PGMS based on strong optic-thermal effect combines with high Q value, high energy density and narrow linewidth characteristics, and achieves an optic-thermal tunable sensitivity up to 72.727pm/mW.
Conclusions An all-optical TFF based on PGMS was proposed and demonstrated. Fabricate the microsphere with high Q value was frabricated using the high power CO2 laser by melting and heating the fiber. The microsphere was coupled efficiently by a single mode tapered fiber and the WGM resonance was excited by a tunable laser source. With a varied optical pump power, the PGMS has higher optical sensitivities than the silica microsphere. As for the PGMS, an increased pump power results in WGM resonance wavelength shifting to a shorter wavelength (blue shift), and the optic-thermal tunable sensitivity is about 72.727pm/mW with a high linearity of >0.99. However, in the same condition, the WGM resonance wavelength of the silica microsphere shifts to a longer wavelength (red shift), and the optic-thermal tunable sensitivity is only about 0.086pm/mW with a much lower linearity. The proposed all-optical TTF based on PGMS has the advantages of all-optical control, compact structure, high stability, ultra-narrow bandwidth and highly tunable efficiency, which will be used widely in the field of power system, optical fiber sensing and optical fiber laser.
沈骁：南京邮电大学电子与光学工程学院, 微电子学院, 江苏 南京 210023
周权：南京邮电大学电子与光学工程学院, 微电子学院, 江苏 南京 210023
张帅：南京邮电大学电子与光学工程学院, 微电子学院, 江苏 南京 210023
毛静怡：南京邮电大学电子与光学工程学院, 微电子学院, 江苏 南京 210023
万洪丹：南京邮电大学电子与光学工程学院, 微电子学院, 江苏 南京 210023
【1】Peng S J, Liu Y N, Xue J L, et al. Design of multi-mode fiber tunable optical filter based on strain [J]. Chinese Journal of Lasers. 2011, 38(5): 0505004.
彭石军, 刘亚南, 薛金来, 等. 基于应变的多模光纤可调谐光纤滤波器设计 [J]. 中国激光. 2011, 38(5): 0505004.
【2】Willner A E, Khaleghi S, Chitgarha M R, et al. All-optical signal processing [J]. Journal of Lightwave Technology. 2014, 32(4): 660-680.
【3】Sun Y, Liu D, Lu P, et al. Dual-parameters optical fiber sensor with enhanced resolution using twisted MMF based on SMS structure [J]. IEEE Sensors Journal. 2017, 17(10): 3045-3051.Sun Y, Liu D, Lu P, et al. Dual-parameters optical fiber sensor with enhanced resolution using twisted MMF based on SMS structure [J]. IEEE Sensors Journal. 2017, 17(10): 3045-3051.
【4】Wei L, Tatel G. Wavelength continuously tunable all-fiber flat-top comb filter based on a dual-pass Mach-Zehnder interferometer [J]. Journal of Lightwave Technology. 2019, 37(15): 3740-3749.Wei L, Tatel G. Wavelength continuously tunable all-fiber flat-top comb filter based on a dual-pass Mach-Zehnder interferometer [J]. Journal of Lightwave Technology. 2019, 37(15): 3740-3749.
【5】Dong X, Shum P, Ngo N Q, et al. A bandwidth-tunable FBG filter with fixed center wavelength [J]. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters. 2004, 41(1): 22-24.Dong X, Shum P, Ngo N Q, et al. A bandwidth-tunable FBG filter with fixed center wavelength [J]. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters. 2004, 41(1): 22-24.
【6】Jia W H, Sun Q Z, Sun X H, et al. Microfiber Fabry-Perot filter consisting of two cascaded Sagnac reflectors for multi-wavelength fiber laser [J]. Proceedings of SPIE. 2013, 8924(5): 89242W.Jia W H, Sun Q Z, Sun X H, et al. Microfiber Fabry-Perot filter consisting of two cascaded Sagnac reflectors for multi-wavelength fiber laser [J]. Proceedings of SPIE. 2013, 8924(5): 89242W.
【7】Yu H, Luo Z, Zheng Y, et al. Temperature-insensitive vibration sensor with Kagomé hollow-core fiber based Fabry-Perot interferometer [J]. Journal of Lightwave Technology. 2019, 37(10): 2261-2269.
【8】Han C Y, Zhao C Y, Ding H, et al. Spherical microcavity-based membrane-free FiZeau interferometric acoustic sensor [J]. Optics Letters. 2019, 44(15): 3677-3680.
【9】Im J E, Kim B K, Chung Y. Tunable single- and dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser based on Sagnac filter with a high-birefringence photonic crystal fiber [J]. Laser Physics. 2011, 21(3): 540-547.
【10】Kim H J, Han Y G. Polarization-dependent in-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer for discrimination of temperature and ambient index sensitivities [J]. Journal of Lightwave Technology. 2012, 30(8): 1037-1041.
【11】Gao S C, Zhang W G, Bai Z Y, et al. Microfiber-enabled in-line Fabry-Pérot interferometer for high-sensitive force and refractive index sensing [J]. Journal of Lightwave Technology. 2014, 32(9): 1682-1688.
【12】Yin B, Feng S C, Liu Z B, et al. Tunable and switchable dual-wavelength single polarization narrow linewidth SLM erbium-doped fiber laser based on a PM-CMFBG filter [J]. Optics Express. 2014, 22(19): 22528-22533.
【13】Huang D M, Huang W, Zeng J, et al. Electrical thermo-optic tuning of whispering gallery mode microtube resonator [J]. IEEE Photonics Technology Letters. 2017, 29(1): 169-172.
【14】Yuan F, Zhao J J, Jiang W F, et al. Optical property of polarization-maintaining fiber taper for tunable multi-wavelength fiber laser generation [J]. IEEE Photonics Journal. 2019, 12(1): 1-9.
【15】Li X T, Chang P F, Huang L G, et al. Feasibility of quasicritical coupling based on LP modes and its application as a filter with tunable bandwidth and stable insertion loss [J]. Optics Express. 2019, 27(16): 23610-23619.
【16】Tang Z, Zhang J X, Fu S J, et al. Tunable CW all-fiber optical parametric oscillator based on the multimode interference filter [J]. Infrared and Laser Engineering. 2019, 48(5): 0520002.
唐钊, 张钧翔, 付士杰, 等. 基于MMI滤波器的可调谐连续光全光纤OPO [J]. 红外与激光工程. 2019, 48(5): 0520002.
【17】Mao Q, Tang X G, Meng F, et al. Tunable narrow-band filter with sub-wavelength grating structure by micro-optofluidic technique [J]. Laser & Optoelectronics Progress. 2019, 56(4): 042301.
毛强, 唐雄贵, 孟方, 等. 基于亚波长光栅结构的微流控可调窄带滤波器设计与分析 [J]. 激光与光电子学进展. 2019, 56(4): 042301.
【18】Ma L, Qi Y H, Kang Z X, et al. Tunable fiber laser based on the refractive index characteristic of MMI effects [J]. Optics & Laser Technology. 2014, 57: 96-99.
【19】Meng Y H, Deng L, Liu Z L, et al. All-optical tunable microfiber knot resonator with graphene-assisted sandwich structure [J]. Optics Express. 2017, 25(15): 18451-18461.
【20】Yu Y, Bian Q, Wang J F, et al. All-optical modulation characteristics of a microfiber coupler combined Sagnac loop [J]. IEEE Photonics Journal. 2019, 11(1): 1-11.
【21】Liu L, Xue W, Jin X, et al. Bandwidth and wavelength tunable all-optical filter based on cascaded opto-mechanical microring resonators [J]. IEEE Photonics Journal. 2019, 11(1): 1-10.
【22】Wan H D, Chen Y F, Zhou Q, et al. Tunable, single-wavelength fiber ring lasers based on rare earth-doped, double-peanut fiber interferometers [J]. Journal of Lightwave Technology. 2020, 38(6): 1501-1505.Wan H D, Chen Y F, Zhou Q, et al. Tunable, single-wavelength fiber ring lasers based on rare earth-doped, double-peanut fiber interferometers [J]. Journal of Lightwave Technology. 2020, 38(6): 1501-1505.
【23】Liu K, He Y, Yang A, et al. Resonant response and four-wave mixing via microsphere coupled with microfiber coupler[C]∥2018 Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (ACP), October 26-29, 2018, Hangzhou, China. New York: , 2018, 18355856.
【24】Ioppolo T, ?tügen V, Ayaz U. Development of whispering gallery mode polymeric micro-optical electric field sensors Journal of Visualized Experiments[J]. 0, 2013(71): e50199.
【25】Ward J M, Yang Y, Chormaic S N. Flow sensor using a hollow whispering gallery mode microlaser [J]. Proceedings of SPIE. 2016, 9727: 972718.
【26】Yang Y, Lei F C, Kasumie S, et al. Tunable erbium-doped microbubble laser fabricated by Sol-gel coating [J]. Optics Express. 2017, 25(2): 1308-1313.
【27】Lin W, Zhang H, Liu B, et al. Laser-tuned whispering gallery modes in a solid-core microstructured optical fibre integrated with magnetic fluids [J]. Scientific Reports. 2015, 5: 17791.
【28】Gensch T, Viappiani C. Time-resolved photothermal methods: accessing time-resolved thermodynamics of photoinduced processes in chemistry and biology [J]. Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences. 2003, 2(7): 699-721.
【29】Jiang Z H. Optical functional glasses[M]. Beijing: Chemical Industry Press, 2008, 26-27.
姜中宏. 新型光功能玻璃[M]. 北京: 化学工业出版社, 2008, 26-27.
Chen Yufang,Shen Xiao,Zhou Quan,Zhang Shuai,Mao Jingyi,Wan Hongdan. All-Optical Tunable Fiber Filter Based on Phosphate Glass Microspheres[J]. Chinese Journal of Lasers, 2021, 48(1): 0106003
陈彧芳,沈骁,周权,张帅,毛静怡,万洪丹. 基于磷酸盐玻璃微球腔的全光调谐光纤滤波器[J]. 中国激光, 2021, 48(1): 0106003