Hong–Ou–Mandel interference of two independent continuous-wave coherent photons
Interference between two completely independent photons lies at the heart of many photonic quantum information applications such as quantum repeaters, teleportation, and quantum key distribution. Here, we report the observation of Hong–Ou–Mandel (HOM) interference with two independent continuous-wave coherent light sources that are neither synchronized nor share any common reference. To prepare indistinguishable photons from two independent laser sources, we employ high-precision frequency-stabilization techniques using the
基金项目：National Research Foundation of Korea
Danbi Kim：Department of Physics, Pusan National University, Geumjeong-Gu, Busan 46241, South Korea
Jiho Park：Department of Physics, Pusan National University, Geumjeong-Gu, Busan 46241, South Korea
Han Seb Moon：Department of Physics, Pusan National University, Geumjeong-Gu, Busan 46241, South Korea
备注：National Research Foundation of Korea
【1】O. Carnal and J. Mlynek. Young’s double-slit experiment with atoms: a simple atom interferometer. Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2689-2692(1991).
【2】A. Tonomura, J. Endo, T. Matsuda and T. Kawasaki. Demonstration of single-electron buildup of an interference pattern. Am. J. Phys. 57, 117-120(1989).
【3】A. Zeilinger, R. G?hler, C. G. Shull, W. Treimer and W. Mampe. Single and double-slit diffraction of neutrons. Rev. Mod. Phys. 60, 1067-1073(1988).
【4】M. Arndt, O. Nairz, J. Vos-Andreae, C. Keller, G. van der Zouw and A. Zeilinger. Wave-particle duality of C60 molecules. Nature. 401, 680-682(1999).
【5】P. Grangier, G. Roger and A. Aspect. Evidence for a photon anticorrelation effect on a beam splitter: a new light on single-photon interferences. Europhys. Lett. 1, 173-179(1986).
【6】P. A. M. DiracP. A. M. Dirac. The Principles of Quantum Mechanics. : Oxford University, (1958).
【7】G. Magyar and L. Mandel. Interference fringes produced by superposition of two independent maser light beams. Nature. 198, 255-256(1963).
【8】M. S. Lipsett and L. Mandel. Coherence time measurements of light from ruby optical masers. Nature. 199, 553-555(1963).
【9】U. FanoU. Fano. Quantum theory of interference effects in the mixing of light from phase-independent sources. Am. J. Phys. 29, 539-545(1961).
【10】L. MandelL. Mandel. Quantum theory of interference effects produced by independent light beams. Phys. Rev. 134, A10-A15(1964).
【11】T. F. Jordan and F. Ghielmetti. Quantum theory of interference of light from two lasers. Phys. Rev. Lett. 12, 607-609(1964).
【12】A. Javan, E. A. Ballik and W. L. Bond. Frequency characteristics of a continuous-wave He-Ne optical laser. J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 96-98(1962).
【13】H. E. J. NeugebauerH. E. J. Neugebauer. Coherence time of a maser. J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 470-471(1962).
【14】L. MandelL. Mandel. Transient coherence in optics. J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1407-1408(1962).
【15】R. L. Pfleegor and L. Mandel. Interference of independent photon beams. Phys. Rev. 159, 1084-1088(1967).
【16】R. L. Pfleegor and L. Mandel. Interference effects at the single photon level. Phys. Lett. A. 24, 766-767(1967).
【17】R. L. Pfleegor and L. Mandel. Further experiments on interference of independent photon beams at low light levels. J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 946-950(1968).
【18】R. J. GlauberR. J. Glauber. Dirac’s famous dictum on interference: one photon or two?. Am. J. Phys. 63, (1995).
【19】R. Ghosh and L. Mandel. Observation of nonclassical effects in the interference of two photons. Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1903-1905(1987).
【20】R. H. Brown and R. Q. Twiss. Correlation between photons in two coherent beams of light. Nature. 177, 27-29(1956).
【21】R. H. Brown and R. Q. Twiss. A test of a new type of stellar interferometer on Sirius. Nature. 178, 1046-1048(1956).
【22】C. K. Hong, Z. Y. Ou and L. Mandel. Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons by interference. Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2044-2046(1987).
【23】L. MandelL. Mandel. Quantum effects in one-photon and two-photon interference. Rev. Mod. Phys. 71, S274-S282(1999).
【24】P. Kok, W. J. Munro, K. Nemoto, T. C. Ralph, J. P. Dowling and G. J. Milburn. Linear optical quantum computing with photonic qubits. Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 135-174(2007).
【25】Z. S. Yuan, X. H. Bao, C. Y. Lu, J. Zhang, C. Z. Peng and J. W. Pan. Entangled photons and quantum communication. Phys. Rep. 497, 1-40(2010).
【26】F. Flamini, N. Spagnolo and F. Sciarrino. Photonic quantum information processing: a review. Rep. Prog. Phys. 82, (2019).
【27】H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden and N. Gisin. Quantum interference with photon pairs created in spatially separated sources. Phys. Rev. A. 67, (2003).
【28】R. Kaltenbaek, B. Blauensteiner, M. ?ukowski, M. Aspelmeyer and A. Zeilinger. Experimental interference of independent photons. Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, (2006).
【29】M. Halder, A. Beveratos, N. Gisin, V. Scarani, C. Simon and H. Zbinden. Entangling independent photons by time measurement. Nat. Phys. 3, 692-695(2007).
【30】P. Qian, Z. Gu, R. Cao, R. Wen, Z. Y. Ou, J. F. Chen and W. Zhang. Temporal purity and quantum interference of single photons from two independent cold atomic ensembles. Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, (2016).
【31】T. Jung, Y.-S. Lee, J. Park, H. Kim and H. S. Moon. Quantum interference between autonomous single-photon sources from Doppler-broadened atomic ensemble. Optica. 4, 1167-1170(2017).
【32】D. Bouwmeester, J. W. Pan, K. Mattle, M. Eibl, H. Weinfurter and A. Zeilinger. Experimental quantum teleportation. Nature. 390, 575-579(1997).
【33】J. W. Pan, D. Bouwmeester, H. Weinfurter and A. Zeilinger. Experimental entanglement swapping: entangling photons that never interacted. Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3891-3894(1998).
【34】Z. Y. Ou, E. C. Gage, B. E. Magill and L. Mandel. Fourth-order interference technique for determining the coherence time of a light beam. J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 6, 100-103(1989).
【35】Y. Miyamoto, T. Kuga, M. Baba and M. Matsuoka. Measurement of ultrafast optical pulses with two-photon interference. Opt. Lett. 18, 900-902(1993).
【36】J. B. Liu, Y. Zhou, F. L. Li and Z. Xu. The second-order interference between laser and thermal light. Europhys. Lett. 105, (2014).
【37】J. B. Liu, H. Zheng, H. Chen, Y. Zhou, F. L. Li and Z. Xu. The first- and second-order temporal interference between thermal and laser light. Opt. Express. 23, 11868-11878(2015).
【38】J. B. Liu, M. Le, B. Bai, W. Wang, H. Chen, Y. Zhou, F. L. Li and Z. Xu. The second-order interference of two independent single-mode He-Ne lasers. Opt. Commun. 350, 196-201(2015).
【39】J. B. Liu, D. Wei, H. Chen, Y. Zhou, H. B. Zheng, H. Gao, F. L. Li and Z. Xu. Second-order interference of two independent and tunable single-mode continuous-wave lasers. Chin. Phys. B. 25, (2016).
【40】H. K. Lo, M. Curty and B. Qi. Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution. Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, (2012).
【41】Z. L. Yuan, M. Lucamarini, J. F. Dynes, B. Fr?hlich, M. B. Ward and A. J. Shields. Interference of short optical pulses from independent gain-switched laser diodes for quantum secure communications. Phys. Rev. Appl. 2, (2014).
【42】C. Agnesi, B. Da Lio, D. Cozzolino, L. Cardi, B. B. Bakir, K. Hassan, A. D. Frera, A. Ruggeri, A. Giudice, G. Vallone, P. Villoresi, A. Tosi, K. Rottwitt, Y. Ding and D. Bacco. Hong-Ou-Mandel interference between independent III-V on silicon waveguide integrated lasers. Opt. Lett. 44, 271-274(2019).
【43】H. Semenenko, P. Sibson, M. G. Thompson and C. Erven. Interference between independent photonic integrated devices for quantum key distribution. Opt. Lett. 44, 275-278(2019).
【44】T. Ferreira da Silva, D. Vitoreti, G. B. Xavier, G. C. do Amaral, G. P. Tempor?o and J. P. von der Weid. Proof-of–principle demonstration of measurement-device–independent quantum key distribution using polarization qubits. Phys. Rev. A. 88, (2013).
【45】E. Moschandreou, J. I. Garcia, B. J. Rollick, B. Qi, R. Pooser and G. Siopsis. Experimental study of Hong–Ou–Mandel interference using independent phase randomized weak coherent states. J. Lightwave Technol. 36, 3752-3759(2018).
【46】T. Ferreira da Silva, D. Vitoreti, G. B. Xavier, G. P. Tempor?o and J. P. von der Weid. Long-distance Bell-state analysis of fully Independent polarization weak coherent states. J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 2881-2887(2013).
【47】T. F. da Silva, G. C. do Amaral, D. Vitoreti, G. P. Tempor?o and J. P. von der Weid. Spectral characterization of weak coherent state sources based on two-photon interference. J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 32, 545-549(2015).
【48】G. C. Amaral, T. F. da Silva, G. P. Tempor?o and J. P. von der Weid. Few-photon heterodyne spectroscopy. Opt. Lett. 41, 1502-1505(2016).
【49】T. Legero, T. Wilk, A. Kuhn and G. Rempe. Time-resolved two-photon quantum interference. Appl. Phys. B. 77, 797-802(2003).
【50】T. Legero, T. Wilk, M. Hennrich, G. Rempe and A. Kuhn. Quantum beat of two single photons. Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, (2004).
【51】Y. S. Kim, O. Slattery, P. S. Kuo and X. Tang. Two-photon interference with continuous-wave multi-mode coherent light. Opt. Express. 22, 3611-3620(2014).
Heonoh Kim, Danbi Kim, Jiho Park, and Han Seb Moon, "Hong–Ou–Mandel interference of two independent continuous-wave coherent photons," Photonics Research 8(9), 1491-1495 (2020)