摘要是科技论文的必要部分,中文学术期刊的对外交流主要借助于英文摘要,其重要性不言而喻。尽管英文摘要篇幅不长,但问题不少。

英文摘要编辑加工的目标是力求正确、简洁,与国际接轨。《生物技术通讯》为中文生物类期刊,一直在英文摘要的编辑加工方面摸索前行。从最简单的英文单词加工的角度,举例说明通过删除冗余词、添加连接词、辨别“陷阱词”、升华口语词,使行文简洁、语法合理、叙述正确,提高书面化水平。
             

1.  删除冗余词

      
科技语言贵在简洁,科技英语同样是“益一字则文赘,损一字则意阙”。在不影响表达含义的前提下,可以大胆删除多余的单词。

原稿:Bevacizumab is a recombinant humanized monoclonal IgG1 antibody that inhibits the growth of tumor by the inhibition of the activity of vascular endothelial growth factor.

修改:Bevacizumab is a recombinant humanized monoclonal IgG1 that suppresses tumor growth by inhibiting the vascular endothelial growth factor.

分析:IgG1本身就是一种抗体,所以“antibody”一词完全是多余的。对血管内皮生长因子的抑制就是抑制该因子促进血管生成的活性,“activity”一词冗余。

 

原稿:The result of luciferase reporter assay showed that the transcriptional activities of ERα and ERα with mutations at phosphorylation sites of 224(Thr) and 559(ser) increased significantly.

修改:Luciferase reporter assay showed that the transcriptional activities of ERα and its T224A and S559A mutants increased significantly.

分析“检测结果表明”是中文的表达习惯,将“结果”一词按部就班地翻译到英文中没有必要,反而显得啰嗦。摘要中对结果的叙述应简明、确切,没有必要提供过多细节,因此将红色字体部分改为“its T224A and S559A mutants”,既保留了重要信息,又简化了表达。

2. 
添加连接词

科技论文的英文摘要中,提倡尽量使用短句,但要避免单调和重复。添加连词如同使用胶水一样将关联的句子粘在一起。

原稿:Protein drugs need to be delivered into cells to exert pharmacological actions. Low efficiency in intracellular delivery has become an obstacle to the development of many protein drugs.

修改:Because protein drugs need delivering into cells to exert pharmacological actions, low efficiency in intracellular delivery has become an obstacle to their development.

分析:原稿由两个短句组成,通过添加引导原因状语从句的从属连词“because将二者紧密联系起来,增强了逻辑性,并且避免了“protein drugs的重复使用。

 

原稿:It has been shown that cancer patients have higher levels of exosomes in their blood. The exosomes derived from cancer patients contain cancer biomarkers.

修改:It has been shown that exosomes in the blood of cancer patients are at abnormally high levels and contain cancer biomarkers.

分析:“exosomes”和“cancer patient”重复出现,将“exosomes”作为宾语从句中的主语并添加连词“and”,2个短句整合在一起,使句子更加简洁且层次分明。

3. 
辨别“陷阱词”

       “陷阱词”为易混淆词,或形近或意似,乍看正确,其实不然。编辑应从词形和词义上仔细分辨,提高对“陷阱词”的辨识能力。

 

原稿:Topical delivery of nucleic acids for the treatment of skin diseases can avoid enzymatic degradation associated with systematic administration.

修改:Topical delivery of nucleic acids for the treatment of skin diseases can avoid enzymatic degradation associated with systemic administration.

分析:“Systemic和“systematic”词形非常相似,都可表示“系统的”这一含义,易混淆;但是作为专业术语,只有“systemic意为“全身的”。

4. 升华口语词

科技英语的正式性和学术性很大程度上体现在词的使用上。表达口语化使文章的学术性大打折扣,可将口语化表述改为更为正式的书面表达形式。

原稿:The high level of IFN-γ + CD4 +, IL-4 + CD4 + and IFN-γ + CD8 + T splenocytes in mice vaccinated with recombinant spores indicated good humoral and cellular immunities induced by oral vaccination.

修改:The increased level of IFN-γ + CD4 +, IL-4 + CD4 + and IFN-γ + CD8 + T splenocytes in mice vaccinated with recombinant spores indicated superior humoral and cellular immunities induced by oral vaccination.

分析:“高(high)”和“好(good)”这些常用的口语表达词汇不适合在科技论文中使用,可替换为更为正式和严谨的“increased”和“superior”。

 

原稿:The amount and stability of γ-hemoglobin in cells in response to SARS-CoV N were determined by Western blotting.

修改:The intracellular expression and stability of γ-hemoglobin in response to SARS-CoV N were determined by Western blotting.

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分析:Amount in cells(细胞内的量)实为在细胞内的表达量,将其替换为“intracellular expression更为专业。