Atomic and molecular physics
and Yuzhu Wang
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The environmental perturbation on atoms is a key factor restricting the performance of atomic frequency standards, especially in the long-term scale. In this Letter, we perform a real-time noise distinguish (RTND) to an atomic clock to decrease the uncertainty of the atomic clock beyond the level that is attained by the current controlling method. In RTND, the related parameters of the clock are monitored in real time by using the calibrated sensors, and their effects on the clock frequency are calculated. By subtracting the effects from the error signal, the local oscillator is treated as equivalently locked to the unperturbed atomic levels. In order to perform quantitative tests, we engineer time-varying noise much larger than the intrinsic noise in our fountain atomic clock. By using RTND, the influences of the added noises are detected and subtracted precisely from the error signals before feeding back to the reference oscillator. The result shows that the statistical uncertainty of our fountain clock is improved by an order of magnitude to 2×10?15. Besides, the frequency offset introduced by the noise is also corrected, while the systematic uncertainty is unaffected.
PDF全文 (下载：73) Chinese Optics Letters ，2017年第15卷第5期 pp.050201
and Zhongyang Wang
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We investigate the transitions between energy levels and parity symmetry in an effective two-level polar molecule system strongly coupled with a quantized harmonic oscillator. By the dressed-state perturbation theory, the transition diagrams between the dressed-state energy levels are presented clearly and show that the odd (even) parity symmetry is broken by the permanent dipole moment (PDM) of the polar molecules. By the analytical and numerical methods, we find that when the coupling strength and the PDM increase, the more frequency components are induced by the counter-rotating terms and PDM.
PDF全文 (下载：42) Chinese Optics Letters ，2017年第15卷第5期 pp.050202
and Junmin Wang
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A 1470 nm+852 nm two-color (TC) cesium (Cs) magneto-optical trap (MOT) with a 6S1/2-6P3/2-7S1/2 ladder-type system is proposed and experimentally investigated. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first report about the 1470 nm+852 nm Cs TC-MOT. One of the three pairs of the 852 nm cooling and trapping beams (CTBs) in a conventional Cs MOT is replaced with a pair of the 1470 nm CTBs. Thus, the TC-MOT partially employs the optical radiation forces from photon scattering of the 6P3/2 (F′=5) ?7S1/2 (F′′=4) excited-state transition (1470 nm). This TC-MOT can cool and trap Cs atoms on both the red- and blue-detuning sides of the two-photon resonance. This work may have applications in cooling and trapping of atoms using inconvenient wavelengths and background-free detection of cold and trapped Cs atoms.
PDF全文 (下载：34) Chinese Optics Letters ，2017年第15卷第5期 pp.050203
Fiber optics and optical communication
and Peng Guo
Visible light positioning becomes popular recently. However, its performance is degraded by the indoor diffuse optical channel. An artificial neural-network-based visible light positioning algorithm is proposed in this Letter, and a trained neural network is used to achieve positioning with a diffuse channel. Simulations are made to evaluate the proposed positioning algorithm. Results show that the average positioning error is reduced about 13 times, and the positioning time is reduced about two magnitudes. Moreover, the proposed algorithm is robust with a different field-of-view of the receiver and the reflectivity of the wall, which is suitable for various positioning applications.
PDF全文 (下载：56) Chinese Optics Letters ，2017年第15卷第5期 pp.050601
and Bensheng Yang
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The symbol error rate (SER) performance of a multipulse pulse-position modulation (MPPM) free space optical (FSO) system under the combined effect of turbulence-induced fading modeled by exponentiated Weibull (EW) distribution and pointing errors with a soft-decision detector is investigated systematically. Particularly, the theoretical conditional SER (CSER) of soft-decision decoded MPPM is derived. The corresponding closed-form CSER is obtained via curve fitting with the Levenberg–Marquardt method. The analytical SER expression over the aggregated fading channels is then achieved in terms of Laguerre integration. Monte Carlo simulation results are also offered to corroborate the validity of the proposed SER model.
PDF全文 (下载：37) Chinese Optics Letters ，2017年第15卷第5期 pp.050602
and Bingkun Zhou
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A highly linear W-band receiver front-end based on higher-order optical sideband (OSB) processing is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Two-tone analysis shows that by manipulating higher-order OSBs, the third-order intermodulation distortion (IMD3) introduced by optoelectronic components (mainly modulators) in the receiver front-end can be further suppressed, and a 9 dB improvement of the ratio of the fundamental and IMD3 can be attained. In the experiment, the spurious-free dynamic range of the W-band receiver front-end is up to 122.1 dB·Hz2/3, with improvement by 9 dB compared with that of only processing the five OSBs.
PDF全文 (下载：34) Chinese Optics Letters ，2017年第15卷第5期 pp.050603
and Shaohua Yu
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Multipath interference induced power fading occurs when the transmission path lengths from the light emitting diodes to a single receiver are different in a visible light communication system. To solve this problem, we apply a QR-decomposition-based channel equalizer (QR-CE) to achieve successive interference cancellation for a discrete Fourier transform spreading (DFT-S) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal. We experimentally demonstrate a 200 Mb/s DFT-S OFDM over a 2 m free-space transmission. The experimental results show that a DFT-S OFDM with QR-CE attains much better bit error rate performance than a DFT-S OFDM with conventional CEs. The impacts of several parameters on a QR-CE are also investigated.
PDF全文 (下载：39) Chinese Optics Letters ，2017年第15卷第5期 pp.050604
and Ryohei Urata
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We review over a decade of technology evolution and advancement of intra-datacenter optical interconnect, mainly driven by the explosive bandwidth growth of web and cloud-based services. Emerging trends and technology options to scale interface bandwidth beyond 400 Gb/s will also be discussed.
PDF全文 (下载：77) Chinese Optics Letters ，2017年第15卷第5期 pp.120008
and Chuanqing Zhou
We develop an improved region growing method to realize automatic retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cell segmentation for photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) imaging. The minimum bounding rectangle of the segmented region is used in this method to dynamically update the growing threshold for optimal segmentation. Phantom images and PAM imaging results of normal porcine RPE are applied to demonstrate the effectiveness of the segmentation. The method realizes accurate segmentation of RPE cells and also provides the basis for quantitative analysis of cell features such as cell area and component content, which can have potential applications in studying RPE cell functions for PAM imaging.
PDF全文 (下载：59) Chinese Optics Letters ，2017年第15卷第5期 pp.051101
Lasers and laser optics
and Yinmei Li
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We experimentally demonstrate that optical tweezers can be used to accelerate the self-assembly of colloidal particles at a water–air interface in this Letter. The thermal flow induced by optical tweezers dominates the growth acceleration at the interface. Furthermore, optical tweezers are used to create a local growth peak at the growing front, which is used to study the preferential incorporation positions of incoming particles. The results show that the particles surfed with a strong Marangoni flow tend to fill the gap and smoothen the steep peaks. When the peak is smooth, the incoming particles incorporate the crystal homogeneously at the growing front.
PDF全文 (下载：64) Chinese Optics Letters ，2017年第15卷第5期 pp.051401
S. I. Ooi
M. Z. A. Razak
S. R. Azzuhri
A. A. Jasim
M. F. Ismail
and M. A. Ismail
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An elliptical initial polarization state is essential for generating mode-locked pulses using the nonlinear polarization rotation technique. In this work, the relationship between the ellipticity ranges capable of maintaining mode-locked operation against different pump power levels is investigated. An increasing pump power, in conjunction with minor adjustments to the polarization controller’s quarter waveplate, results in a wider ellipticity range that can accommodate mode-locked operation. Other parameters such as noise, pulsewidth, and average output power are also observed to vary as the ellipticity changes.
PDF全文 (下载：80) Chinese Optics Letters ，2017年第15卷第5期 pp.051402
and Zuyan Xu
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In this Letter, ceramic Nd:YAG is charactrizeby electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements. The ESR results indicate that the polycrystalline ceramic Nd:YAG has barely native defects and impurity ions localization defects, compared to an Nd:YAG crystal with the same Nd doping concentration, due to its density structure by sintering in a vacuum pure raw material and additives during the fabrication. It may conclude that the high quality ceramic Nd:YAG may have greater ability on optical characteristic, mechanical performance, and laser damage than that of the crystals, which is a promising candidate to use on laser diode-pumped solid-state lasers.
PDF全文 (下载：60) Chinese Optics Letters ，2017年第15卷第5期 pp.051601
Jong Hyun Lim
Jin Wook Kim
Geum Jae Yoon
and Woo Young Kim
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In order to realize single emissive white phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices (PHOLEDs) with three color phosphorescent dopants (red, green, and blue), the energy transfer between the host material and the three dopants, as well as the among the three dopants themselves, should be considered and optimized. To explore the effect of red phosphorescent dopant on the color rendering index (CRI), the authors investigate the wavelength position of the maximum emission peak from three phosphorescent dopants. The CRI and luminous efficiency of white PHOLED in which Ir(pq)2(acac) acts as the red phosphorescent dopant are found to be greater than those of devices prepared using Ir(piq)3 and Ir(btp)2(acac) as the emission spectrum has a relatively high intensity near the human perception of blue, red, and green wavelengths. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the performance of the three dopants is related to the absorption characteristics of the red phosphorescent dopant. With a maximum emission peak at 600 nm, Ir(pq)2(acac) has a higher intensity in the concave section between 550 and 600 nm seen for red and blue dopants. In addition, the long metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) absorption tail of Ir(pq)2(acac) overlaps with the emission spectra of the green dopant, enhancing emission. Such energy transfer mechanisms are confirmed to optimize white emission in the single emissive white PHOLEDs.
PDF全文 (下载：55) Chinese Optics Letters ，2017年第15卷第5期 pp.051602
and Zhaoyu Ren
The plasmonic mode in graphene metamaterial provides a new approach to manipulate terahertz (THz) waves. Graphene-based split ring resonator (SRR) metamaterial is proposed with the capacity for modulating transmitted THz waves under normal and oblique incidence. Here, we theoretically demonstrate that the resonant strength of the dipolar mode can be significantly enhanced by enlarging the arm-width of the SRR and by stacking graphene layers. The principal mechanism of light–matter interaction in graphene metamaterial provides a dynamical modulation based on the controllable graphene Fermi level. This graphene-based design paves the way for a myriad of important THz applications, such as optical modulators, absorbers, polarizers, etc.
PDF全文 (下载：77) Chinese Optics Letters ，2017年第15卷第5期 pp.051603
and Long Zhang
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In this work, we investigate a new type of fluoride glasses modified by Al(PO3)3 with various Tm3+/Ho3+ doping concentrations. The introduced PO3? plays an effective role in improving the glass-forming ability and thermal stability. Besides, 1.47, 1.8, and 2.0 μm emissions originating from Tm3+ and Ho3+, respectively, are observed. The spectroscopic properties and energy transfer mechanisms between Tm3+ and Ho3+ are analyzed as well. It is noted that the higher predicted spontaneous transition probability (118.74 s?1) along with the larger product of measured decay lifetime and the emission cross section (σemi×τ) give evidence of intense 2.0 μm fluorescence.
PDF全文 (下载：37) Chinese Optics Letters ，2017年第15卷第5期 pp.051604
Medical optics and biotechnology
Hanh N. D. Le
and Jin U. Kang
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An endoscopic imaging system using a plenoptic technique to reconstruct 3-D information is demonstrated and analyzed in this Letter. The proposed setup integrates a clinical surgical endoscope with a plenoptic camera to achieve a depth accuracy error of about 1 mm and a precision error of about 2 mm, within a 25 mm×25 mm field of view, operating at 11 frames per second.
PDF全文 (下载：123) Chinese Optics Letters ，2017年第15卷第5期 pp.051701
and Enam Chowdhury
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Five conical harmonic beams are generated from the interaction of femtosecond mid-infrared (mid-IR) pulses at a nominal input wavelength of 1997 nm with a 2D LiNbO3 nonlinear photonic crystal with Sierpinski fractal superlattices. The main diffraction orders and the corresponding reciprocal vectors involved in the interaction are ascertained. Second and third harmonics emerging at external angles of 23.82° and 36.75° result from nonlinear ?erenkov and Bragg diffractions, respectively. Three pathways of fourth-harmonic generation are observed at external angles of 14.21°, 36.5°, and 53.48°, with the first one resulting from nonlinear ?erenkov diffraction, and the other two harmonics are generated via different cascaded processes.
PDF全文 (下载：35) Chinese Optics Letters ，2017年第15卷第5期 pp.051901
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We show how to optimally protect quantum states and freeze coherence under incoherent channels using a quantum weak measurement and quantum measurement reversal. In particular, we present explicit formulas for the conditions for freezing quantum coherence in a given quantum state.
PDF全文 (下载：47) Chinese Optics Letters ，2017年第15卷第5期 pp.052701
and Yafei Wang
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The cavity ring-down (CRD) technique is adopted for simultaneously measuring s- and p-polarization reflectivity of highly reflective coatings without employing any polarization optics. As the s- and p-polarized light trapped in the ring-down cavity decay independently, with a randomly polarized light source the ring-down signal recorded by a photodetector presents a double-exponential waveform consisting of ring-down signals of both s- and p-polarized light. The s- and p-polarization reflectivity values of a test mirror are therefore simultaneously determined by fitting the recorded ring-down signal with a double-exponential function. The determined s- and p-polarization reflectivity of 30° and 45° angle of incidence mirrors are in good agreement with the reflectivity values measured with the conventional CRD technique employing a polarizer for polarization control.
PDF全文 (下载：56) Chinese Optics Letters ，2017年第15卷第5期 pp.053101