We report on the direct generation of passively mode-locked vortex lasers in the visible spectral region, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, using a $\mathrm{Pr}\text{:}{\mathrm{LiYF}}_{4}$ (Pr:YLF) crystal as the gain medium. A stable mode-locked ${\mathrm{TEM}}_{00}$ mode has been achieved with a maximum average output power of 75 mW using a graphene saturable absorber mirror. The mode-locked pulse width is measured to be as short as about 73.4 ps at a repetition rate of about 140 MHz, and the laser wavelength is at about 721 nm with spectral width of about 0.5 nm. By slightly misaligning the laser resonator, a first-order Laguerre-Gaussian mode (${\mathrm{LG}}_{0,1}$) has also been obtained with output power reduced to about 22 mW. The achieved ${\mathrm{LG}}_{0,1}$ mode has been verified via a home made improved Fizeau interferometer. This work provides a simple and universal method for direct generation of an ultrafast vortex laser, which can be readily extended to other spectral regions by using different laser gain mediums.

In this work, we investigate the possibility of achieving nanojoule level pulse energy in an all-fiber Er-doped oscillator by using a graded index multimode fiber (GIMF) as the saturable absorber (SA). This GIMF-based SA demonstrates the desirable characteristics of high-power tolerance, large modulation depth of 29.6%, and small saturation fluence of $\uff5e7.19\times {10}^{?3}\text{}\mathrm{\mu J}/{\mathrm{cm}}^{2}$, which contribute to the high-energy soliton generation. In the experiments, the oscillator generates stable ultrafast pulse trains with high pulse energy/average output power up to 13.65 nJ/212.4 mW in the anomalous regime and 6.25 nJ/72.5mW in the normal regime, which are among the highest energy/average output power values achieved by all-fiber Er lasers. The results obtained demonstrate that the GIMF-based SA can be used as an effective photonic device for high-energy wave-breaking free pulse generation.

This work investigates the dynamic and nonlinear properties of quantum dot (QD) lasers directly grown on silicon with a view to isolator-free applications. Among them, the chirp parameter, also named the ${\alpha}_{H}$ factor, is featured through a thermally insensitive method analyzing the residual side-mode dynamics under optical injection locking. The ${\alpha}_{H}$ at threshold is found as low as 0.32. Then, the nonlinear gain is investigated from the gain compression factor viewpoint. The latter is found higher for epitaxial QD lasers on silicon than that in heterogeneously integrated quantum well (QW) devices on silicon. Despite that, the power dependence of the ${\alpha}_{H}$ does not lead to a large increase of the chirp coefficient above the laser’s threshold at higher bias. This effect is confirmed from an analytical model and attributed to the strong lasing emission of the ground-state transition, which transforms into a critical feedback level as high as $?6.5\text{}\mathrm{dB}$, which is $\uff5e19\text{}\mathrm{dB}$ higher than a comparable QW laser. Finally, the intensity noise analysis confirms that QD lasers are overdamped oscillators with damping frequencies as large as 33 GHz. Altogether, these features contribute to fundamentally enhancing the reflection insensitivity of the epitaxial QD lasers. This last feature is unveiled by the 10 Gbit/s error-free high-speed transmission experiments. Overall, we believe that this work is of paramount importance for future isolator-free photonics technologies and cost-efficient high-speed transmission systems.

We apply the notion of discrete supersymmetry based on matrix factorization to quantum systems consisting of coupled bosonic oscillators to construct isospectral bosonic quantum networks. By using the algebra that arises due to the indistinguishability of bosonic particles, we write down the Schr?dinger equations for these oscillators in the different boson-number sectors. By doing so, we obtain, for every partner quantum network, a system of coupled differential equations that can be emulated by classical light propagation in optical waveguide arrays. This mathematical scheme allows us to build quasi-two-dimensional optical arrays that are either isospectral or share only a subset of their spectrum after deliberately omitting some chosen eigenstates from the spectrum. As an example, we use this technique (which we call bosonic discrete supersymmetry or BD-SUSY) to design two optical, silica-based waveguide arrays consisting of six and three elements, respectively, with overlapping eigenspectrum.

Previous works for achieving mechanical squeezing focused mainly on the sole squeezing manipulation method. Here we study how to construct strong steady-state mechanical squeezing via the joint effect between Duffing nonlinearity and parametric pump driving. We find that the 3 dB limit of strong mechanical squeezing can be easily overcome from the joint effect of two different below 3 dB squeezing components induced by Duffing nonlinearity and parametric pump driving, respectively, without the need of any extra technologies, such as quantum measurement or quantum feedback. Especially, we first demonstrate that, in the ideal mechanical bath, the joint squeezing effect just is the superposition of the two respective independent squeezing components. The mechanical squeezing constructed by the joint effect is fairly robust against the mechanical thermal noise. Moreover, different from previous mechanical squeezing detection schemes, which need to introduce an additional ancillary cavity mode, the joint mechanical squeezing effect in the present scheme can be directly measured by homodyning the output field of the cavity with an appropriate phase. The joint idea opens up a new approach to construct strong mechanical squeezing and can be generalized to realize other strong macroscopic quantum effects.

We introduce a multi-step protocol for optical quantum state engineering that performs as “bright quantum scissors,” namely truncates an arbitrary input quantum state to have at least a certain number of photons. The protocol exploits single-photon pulses and is based on the effect of single-photon Raman interaction, which is implemented with a single three-level $\mathrm{\Lambda}$ system (e.g., a single atom) Purcell-enhanced by a single-sided cavity. A single step of the protocol realizes the inverse of the bosonic annihilation operator. Multiple iterations of the protocol can be used to deterministically generate a chain of single photons in a W state. Alternatively, upon appropriate heralding, the protocol can be used to generate Fock-state optical pulses. This protocol could serve as a useful and versatile building block for the generation of advanced optical quantum states that are vital for quantum communication, distributed quantum information processing, and all-optical quantum computing.