Author Affiliations
Abstract
1 Hubei Key Laboratory of Optical Information and Pattern Recognition, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan 430205, China
2 Quantum Photonics Laboratory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803, USA
Entangled photon pairs are crucial resources for quantum information processing protocols. Via the process of spontaneous parametric downconversion (SPDC), we can generate these photon pairs using bulk nonlinear crystals. Traditionally, the crystal is designed to satisfy a specific type of phase-matching condition. Here, we report controllable transitions among different types of phase matching in a single periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate crystal. By carefully selecting pump conditions, we can satisfy different phase-matching conditions. This allows us to observe first-order Type-II, fifth-order Type-I, third-order Type-0, and fifth-order Type-II SPDCs. The temperature-dependent spectra of our source were also analyzed in detail. Finally, we discussed the possibility of observing more than nine SPDCs in this crystal. Our work not only deepens the understanding of the physics behind phase-matching conditions, but also offers the potential for a highly versatile entangled biphoton source for quantum information research.
spontaneous parametric downconversion nonlinear crystals phase-matching condition 
Chinese Optics Letters
2024, 22(2): 021901
Author Affiliations
Abstract
1 State Key Laboratory of Precision Spectroscopy, East China Normal Universityhttps://ror.org/02n96ep67, Shanghai 200062, China
2 Collaborative Innovation Center of Extreme Optics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006, China
Optical clock networks have distinct advantages for the dissemination of time/frequency, geodesy, and fundamental research. To realize such a network, the telecom band and optical atomic clocks have to be coherently bridged. Since the telecom band and optical atomic clocks reside in a distinct spectral region, second-harmonic generation is usually introduced to bridge the large frequency gap. In this paper, we introduce a new method to coherently link a 1550 nm continuous wave laser with a Ti:sapphire mode-locked laser-based optical frequency comb. By coupling the 1550 nm continuous wave laser light and the Ti:sapphire comb light together into a photonic crystal fiber, nonlinear interaction takes place, and new comblike frequency components related to the 1550 nm laser frequency are generated in the visible region. Consequently, we can detect beat notes between two combs in the visible region with a signal-to-noise ratio of more than 40 dB in a resolution bandwidth of 300 kHz. With this signal, we realize an optical frequency divider for converting the frequency of optical clocks in the visible region to the telecom band at 1.55 μm. An out-of-loop measurement shows that the additional noise and uncertainty induced in optical frequency conversion are 5×10-18 at 1 s averaging time and 2.2×10-19, respectively, which are limited by the uncompensated light path fluctuation but fulfill precision measurement using state-of-the-art optical clocks.
Photonics Research
2024, 12(2): 350
Author Affiliations
Abstract
1 Key Laboratory for Laser Plasma, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China
2 Key Laboratory of Micro and Nano Photonic Structures, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China
3 Tsung-Dao Lee Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China
We propose a spatially chirped quasi-phase-matching (QPM) scheme that enables ultrabroadband second-harmonic-generation (SHG) by using a fan-out QPM grating to frequency-convert a spatially chirped fundamental wave. A “zero-dispersion” 4f system maps the spectral contents of ultrabroadband fundamental onto different spatial coordinates in the Fourier plane, where the fundamental is quasi-monochromatic locally in picosecond duration, fundamentally canceling high-order phase mismatch. A fan-out QPM grating characterized by a linear variation of the poling period along the transverse direction exactly supports the QPM of the spatially chirped beam. We theoretically demonstrate the SHG of an 810-nm, 12.1-fs pulse into a 405-nm, 10.2-fs pulse with a conversion efficiency of 77%.
nonlinear optics second-harmonic generation few-cycle pulse 
Chinese Optics Letters
2024, 22(1): 011901
Author Affiliations
Abstract
1 State Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics and Quantum Optics Devices, Institute of Laser Spectroscopy, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006, China
2 Collaborative Innovation Center of Extreme Optics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006, China
3 Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile
4 CIFAR Azrieli Global Scholars Program, CIFAR, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1M1, Canada
5 Joint Quantum Institute, Department of Physics and NIST, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA
6 National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899, USA
We report three orders of magnitude optical cooling of the fundamental torsional mode of a 5 mm long, 550 nm diameter optical nanofiber. The rotation of the nanofiber couples to the polarization of guided laser fields. We use a weak laser probe to monitor the rotation and use feedback to modulate the polarization of an auxiliary drive laser providing torque. Our results present a tool for the optomechanical control of large-scale torsional resonators, with metrological applications and potential implications for studying macroscopic objects in quantum states.
Photonics Research
2023, 11(12): 2179
Author Affiliations
Abstract
1 School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai University of Engineering Science, Shanghai 201620, China
2 State Key Laboratory of Advanced Optical Communication Systems and Networks, School of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China
3 Shanghai Research Center for Quantum Sciences, Shanghai 201315, China
4 Collaborative Innovation Center of Light Manipulation and Applications, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250358, China
Optical frequency conversion based on the second-order nonlinearity (χ(2)) only occurs in anisotropic media (or at interfaces) and thus is intrinsically polarization-dependent. But for practical applications, polarization-insensitive or independent operation is highly sought after. Here, by leveraging polarization coupling and second-order nonlinearity, we experimentally demonstrate a paradigm of TE/TM polarization-independent frequency upconversion, i.e., sum frequency generation, in the periodically poled lithium niobate-on-insulator ridge waveguide. The cascading of quasi-phase-matched polarization coupling and nonlinear frequency conversion is exploited. With a proper transverse electric field, TE and TM mode fundamental waves can be frequency-upconverted with an equal efficiency in the frequency converter. The proposed method may find ready application in all-optical wavelength conversion and upconversion detection technologies.
frequency upconversion polarization coupling lithium niobate on insulator ridge waveguide cascading process 
Chinese Optics Letters
2023, 21(12): 121901
Author Affiliations
Abstract
1 State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Physics, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
2 State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics and Frontiers Science Center for Nano-optoelectronics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
Microcavities constructed from materials with a second-order nonlinear coefficient have enabled efficient second-harmonic (SH) generation at a low power level. However, it is still technically challenging to realize double resonance with large nonlinear modal overlap in a microcavity. Here, we propose a design for a robust, tunable, and easy coupling double-resonance SH generation based on the combination of a newly developed fiber-based Fabry–Perot microcavity and a sandwich structure, whose numerical SH conversion efficiency is up to 3000% W-1. This proposal provides a feasible way to construct ultra-efficient nonlinear devices for generation of classical and quantum light sources.
microcavity double resonance second-harmonic generation 
Chinese Optics Letters
2023, 21(11): 111901
Author Affiliations
Abstract
1 Institute for Translational Brain Research, MOE Frontiers Center for Brain Science, Fudan Universityhttps://ror.org/013q1eq08, Shanghai 200032, China
2 Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, California 94132, USA
3 Center for Systems and Therapeutics, Gladstone Institutes, San Francisco, California 94158, USA
4 Division of CryoEM and Bioimaging, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA
5 Department of Physics, University Sapienza, I-00185 Roma, Italy
6 Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089, USA
7 TEDA Applied Physics Institute and School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300457, China
Rogue waves are ubiquitous in nature, appearing in a variety of physical systems ranging from acoustics, microwave cavities, optical fibers, and resonators to plasmas, superfluids, and Bose–Einstein condensates. Unlike nonlinear solitary waves, rogue waves are extreme events that can occur even without nonlinearity by, for example, spontaneous synchronization of waves with different spatial frequencies in a linear system. Here, we report the observation of rogue-wave-like events in human red blood cell (RBC) suspensions under weak light illumination, characterized by an abnormal L-shaped probability distribution. Such biophotonic extreme events arise mostly due to the constructive interference of Mie-scattered waves from the suspended RBCs, whose biconcave shape and mutable orientation give rise to a time-dependent random phase modulation to an incident laser beam. We numerically simulate the beam propagation through the colloidal suspensions with added disorder in both spatial and temporal domains to mimic random scattering due to Brownian motion. In addition, at high power levels, nonlinear beam self-focusing is also observed, leading to a dual-exponential probability distribution associated with the formation of multiple soliton-like spots. Such rogue wave events should also exist in environments with cells of other species such as swimming bacteria, and understanding of their underlying physics may lead to unexpected biophotonic applications.
Photonics Research
2023, 11(11): 1838
Author Affiliations
Abstract
Key Laboratory of Optical Fiber Sensing and Communication Networks, School of Information and Communication Engineering, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 611731, China
The nonlinear physics dynamics of temporal dissipative solitons in a microcavity hinder them from attaining high power from pump lasers with a typical nonlinear energy conversion efficiency of less than 1%. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a straightforward method for improving the output power of soliton combs using a silica microrod cavity with high coupling strength, large mode volume, and high-Q factor, resulting in a low-repetition-rate dissipative soliton (21 GHz) with an energy conversion efficiency exceeding 20%. Furthermore, by generating an 105 GHz5×FSR (free spectral range) soliton crystal comb in the microcavity, the energy conversion efficiency can be further increased up to 56%.
optical microcavity nonlinear optics temporal soliton 
Chinese Optics Letters
2023, 21(10): 101902
Author Affiliations
Abstract
1 Joint International Research Laboratory of Information Display and Visualization, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China
2 National Key Laboratory of Solid-State Microwave Devices and Circuits, Nanjing 210016, China
3 Nanjing Electronic Devices Institute, Nanjing 210016, China
4 Key Laboratory of Micro-Inertial Instrument and Advanced Navigation Technology, Ministry of Education, and School of Instrument Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China
5 Suzhou Key Laboratory of Metal Nano-Optoelectronic Technology, Southeast University Suzhou Campus, Suzhou 215123, China
The technological innovation of thin-film lithium niobate (TFLN) is supplanting the traditional lithium niobate industry and generating a vast array of ultra-compact and low-loss optical waveguide devices, providing an unprecedented prospect for chip-scale integrated optics. Because of its unique strong quadratic nonlinearity, TFLN is widely used to create new coherent light, which significantly promotes all-optical signal processes, especially in terms of speed. Herein, we review recent advances in TFLN, review the thorough optimization strategies of all-optical devices with unique characteristics based on TFLN, and discuss the challenges and perspectives of the developed nonlinear devices.
thin-film lithium niobate second-order nonlinearity nonlinear integrated optics 
Chinese Optics Letters
2023, 21(10): 101901
Author Affiliations
Abstract
Laser Research Center, Vilnius Universityhttps://ror.org/03nadee84, LT-10223 Vilnius, Lithuania
We report on the observation of conical third, fifth, seventh, and ninth harmonics that gradually emerge during the supercontinuum generation by filamentation of femtosecond midinfrared pulses in lithium strontium hexafluoroaluminate crystal. We show that the generation of conical odd harmonics is an optical signature of light-driven material reorganization in the form of volume nanogratings at the site irradiated by repetitive femtosecond filaments. The angle-resolved spectral measurements demonstrate remarkably broad spectra of individual odd harmonics, benefiting from a spectrally broadened pump pulse (supercontinuum), and reveal that filament-inscribed nanogratings represent photonic structures that are able to provide ultrabroad phase-matching bandwidths covering the wavelength range from the ultraviolet to the near infrared. We propose a scenario that interprets the generation of conical fifth, seventh, and ninth harmonics as nanograting phase-matched cascaded noncollinear four-wave mixing processes.
Photonics Research
2023, 11(11): 1814

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