Wettability is one of a solid surface’s fundamental physical and chemical properties, which involves a wide range of applications. Femtosecond laser microfabrication has many advantages compared to traditional laser processing. This technology has been successfully applied to control the wettability of material surfaces. This review systematically summarizes the recent progress of femtosecond laser microfabrication in the preparation of various superwetting surfaces. Inspired by nature, the superwettabilities such as superhydrophilicity, superhydrophobicity, superamphiphobicity, underwater superoleophobicity, underwater superaerophobicity, underwater superaerophilicity, slippery liquid-infused porous surface, underwater superpolymphobicity, and supermetalphobicity are obtained on different substrates by the combination of the femtosecond laser-induced micro/nanostructures and appropriate chemical composition. From the perspective of biomimetic preparation, we mainly focus the methods for constructing various kinds of superwetting surfaces by femtosecond laser and the relationship between different laser-induced superwettabilities. The special wettability of solid materials makes the femtosecond laser-functionalized surfaces have many practical applications. Finally, the significant challenges and prospects of this field (femtosecond laser-induced superwettability) are discussed.
2022, 2(1): 9895418
Here, we report the recent progress on the front end developed for the 100 PW-class laser facility. Using 3 stages of optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) based on lithium triborate (LBO) crystals, we realized a 5.26 J/0.1 Hz amplified output with a bandwidth over 200 nm near the center wavelength of 925 nm. After the compressor, we obtained a pulse duration of 13.4 fs. As the compression efficiency reached 67%, this OPCPA front end could potentially support a peak power of 263 TW at a repetition rate of 0.1 Hz. To the best of our knowledge, among all the 100 TW-level OPCPA systems, it shows the widest spectral width, the shortest pulse duration, and it is also the first OPCPA system working at a repetition-rate mode.
2022, 2(1): 9894358
We report evidence for the first generation of XUV spectra from relativistic surface high-harmonic generation (SHHG) on plasma mirrors at a kilohertz repetition rate, emitted simultaneously with energetic electrons. SHHG spectra and electron angular distributions are measured as a function of the experimentally controlled plasma density gradient scale length for three increasingly short and intense driving pulses: 24 fs and , 8 fs and , and finally 4 fs and , where is the peak vector potential normalized by with the elementary charge , the electron rest mass , and the vacuum light velocity . For all driver pulses, we observe correlated relativistic SHHG and electron emission in the range , with an optimum gradient scale length of . This universal optimal -range is rationalized by deriving a direct intensity-independent link between the scale length and an effective similarity parameter for relativistic laser-plasma interactions.
2022, 2(1): 9893418
Terahertz radiation with a Bessel beam profile is demonstrated experimentally from a two-color laser filament in air, which is induced by tailored femtosecond laser pulses with an axicon. The temporal and spatial distributions of Bessel rings of the terahertz radiation are retrieved after being collected in the far field. A theoretical model is proposed, which suggests that such Bessel terahertz pulses are produced due to the combined effects of the inhomogeneous superluminal filament structure and the phase change of the two-color laser components inside the plasma channel. These two effects lead to wavefront crossover and constructive/destructive interference of terahertz radiation from different plasma sources along the laser filament, respectively. Compared with other methods, our technique can support the generation of Bessel pulses with broad spectral bandwidth. Such Bessel pulses can propagate to the far field without significant spatial spreading, which shall provide new opportunities for terahertz applications.
2022, 2(1): 9870325
Among currently available optical spectroscopic methods, Raman spectroscopy has versatile application to investigation of dynamical processes of molecules leading to chemical changes in the gas and liquid phases. However, it is still a challenge to realize an ideal standoff coherent Raman spectrometer with which both high temporal resolution and high-frequency resolution can be achieved, so that one can remotely probe chemical species in real time with high temporal resolution while monitoring the populations in their respective rovibronic levels in the frequency domain with sufficiently high spectral resolution. In the present study, we construct an air-laser-based Raman spectrometer, in which near-infrared femtosecond (fs) laser pulses at 800 nm and cavity-free picosecond N2+ air-laser pulses at 391 nm generated by the filamentation induced by the fs laser pulses are simultaneously used, enabling us to generate a hybrid ps/fs laser source at a desired standoff position for standoff surveillance of chemical and biochemical species. With this prototype Raman spectrometer, we demonstrate that the temporal evolution of the electronic, vibrational, and rotational states of N2+ and the coupling processes of the rovibrational wave packet of N2 molecules can be probed.
2022, 2(1): 9867028
More than ten years ago, the observation of the low-energy structure in the photoelectron energy spectrum, regarded as an “ionization surprise,” has overthrown our understanding of strong-field physics. However, the similar low-energy nuclear fragment generation from dissociating molecules upon the photon energy absorption, one of the well-observed phenomena in light-molecule interaction, still lacks an unambiguous mechanism and remains mysterious. Here, we introduce a time-energy-resolved manner using a multicycle near-infrared femtosecond laser pulse to identify the physical origin of the light-induced ultrafast dynamics of molecules. By simultaneously measuring the bond-stretching times and photon numbers involved in the dissociation of H2+ driven by a polarization-skewed laser pulse, we reveal that the low-energy protons (below 0.7 eV) are produced via dipole-transitions at large bond lengths. The observed low-energy protons originate from strong-field dissociation of high vibrational states rather than the low ones of H2+ cation, which is distinct from the well-accepted bond-softening picture. Further numerical simulation of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation unveils that the electronic states are periodically distorted by the strong laser field, and the energy gap between the field-dressed transient electronic states may favor the one- or three-photon transitions at the internuclear distance larger than 5 a.u. The time-dependent scenario and our time-energy-resolved approach presented here can be extended to other molecules to understand the complex ultrafast dynamics.
2022, 2(1): 9863548
Time domain Ramsey-type interferometry is useful for investigating spectroscopic information of quantum states in atoms and molecules. The energy range of the quantum states to be observed with this scheme has now reached more than 20 eV by resolving the interference fringes with a period of a few hundred attoseconds. This attosecond Ramsey-type interferometry requires the irradiation of a coherent pair of extreme ultraviolet (XUV) light pulses, while all the methods used to deliver the coherent XUV pulse pair until now have relied on the division of the source of an XUV pulse in two before the generation. In this paper, we report on a novel technique to perform attosecond Ramsey-type interferometry by splitting an XUV high-order harmonic (HH) pulse of a sub-20 fs laser pulse after its generation. By virtue of the postgeneration splitting of the HH pulse, we demonstrated that the optical interference emerging at the complete temporal overlap of the HH pulse pair seamlessly continued to the Ramsey-type electronic interference in a helium atom. This technique is applicable for studying the femtosecond dephasing dynamics of electronic wavepackets and exploring the ultrafast evolution of a cationic system entangled with an ionized electron with sub-20 fs resolution.
2022, 2(1): 9858739
The THz generation efficiency and the plasma density generated by a filament in air have been found anti-correlated when pumped by two-color laser field. The plasma density near zero delay of two laser pulses has a minimum value, which is opposite to the trend of THz generation efficiency and contradicts common sense. The lower plasma density cannot be explained by the static tunneling model according to the conventional photocurrent model, but it might be attributed to the electron trapping by the excited states of nitrogen molecule. The present work also clarifies the dominant role of the drifting velocity accelerated by the two-color laser field during the THz pulse generation process. The results promote our understanding on the optimization of the THz generation efficiency by the two-color laser filamentation.
2022, 2(1): 9853053
Interaction of intense laser fields with atoms distorts the bound-state electron cloud. Tracing the temporal response of the electron cloud to the laser field is of fundamental importance for understanding the ultrafast dynamics of various nonlinear phenomena of matter, but it is particularly challenging. Here, we show that the ultrafast response of the atomic electron cloud to the intense high-frequency laser pulses can be probed with the attosecond time-resolved photoelectron holography. In this method, an infrared laser pulse is employed to trigger tunneling ionization of the deforming atom. The shape of the deforming electron cloud is encoded in the hologram of the photoelectron momentum distribution. As a demonstration, by solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, we show that the adiabatic deforming of the bound-state electron cloud, as well as the nonadiabatic transition among the distorted states, is successfully tracked with attosecond resolution. Our work films the formation process of the metastable Kramers-Henneberger states in the intense high-frequency laser pulses. This establishes a novel approach for time-resolved imaging of the ultrafast bound-state electron processes in intense laser fields.
2022, 2(1): 9842716
Ultrafast laser oscillators are indispensable tools for diverse applications in scientific research and industry. When the phases of the longitudinal laser cavity modes are locked, pulses as short as a few femtoseconds can be generated. As most high-power oscillators are based on narrow-bandwidth materials, the achievable duration for high-power output is usually limited. Here, we present a distributed Kerr lens mode-locked Yb:YAG thin-disk oscillator which generates sub-50 fs pulses with spectral widths far broader than the emission bandwidth of the gain medium at full width at half maximum. Simulations were also carried out, indicating good qualitative agreement with the experimental results. Our proof-of-concept study shows that this new mode-locking technique is pulse energy and average power scalable and applicable to other types of gain media, which may lead to new records in the generation of ultrashort pulses.
2022, 2(1): 9837892