Photonics Research, 2023, 11 (6): 961, Published Online: Jun. 8, 2023  

408 Gbit/s PAM-8 sidewall-doped germanium–silicon photodetector

Xiao Hu 1,2Dingyi Wu 2Ye Liu 2Daigao Chen 1,2Lei Wang 1,2,3Xi Xiao 1,2,3,*Shaohua Yu 1,2,3
Author Affiliations
1 State Key Laboratory of Optical Communication Technologies and Networks, Wuhan Research Institute of Posts & Telecommunications (WRI), Wuhan 430074, China
2 National Information Optoelectronics Innovation Center, Wuhan 430074, China
3 Peng Cheng Laboratory, Shenzhen 518055, China
Abstract
Based on the 90 nm silicon photonics commercial foundry, sidewall-doped germanium–silicon photodetectors (PDs) are designed and fabricated. The large designed overlap between the optical field and electric field achieves high responsivity while retaining high-speed performance. Even including the loss due to optical fiber coupling, the PD demonstrates an external responsivity greater than 0.55 A/W for transverse magnetic (TM) polarization and 0.65 A/W for transverse electric (TE) polarization at 1530 nm. A flat responsivity spectrum of >0.5 A/W is achieved up to 1580 nm for both polarizations. Their internal responsivities can exceed 1 A/W in the C+L optical communication bands. Furthermore, with the aid of a 200 mm wafer-level test and analysis, the overall PDs of 26 reticles have a 3 dB optoelectrical bandwidth >50 GHz and a dark current <10 nA at a -3 V bias voltage. Finally, the eye diagram performances under TE and TM polarizations, various modulation formats, and different input wavelengths are comprehensively investigated. The clear open electrical eye diagrams up to 120, 130, 140, and 150 Gbit/s nonreturn-to-zero are experimentally attained at a photocurrent of 1 mA. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that single-lane direct detection of record-high-speed 200, 224, 256, and 290 Gbit/s four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) and 300, 336, 384, and 408 Gbit/s eight-level PAM optical signals has been experimentally achieved.

Xiao Hu, Dingyi Wu, Ye Liu, Daigao Chen, Lei Wang, Xi Xiao, Shaohua Yu. 408 Gbit/s PAM-8 sidewall-doped germanium–silicon photodetector[J]. Photonics Research, 2023, 11(6): 961.

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