Photonics Research, 2023, 11 (6): 961, Published Online: Jun. 8, 2023  

408 Gbit/s PAM-8 sidewall-doped germanium–silicon photodetector

Xiao Hu 1,2Dingyi Wu 2Ye Liu 2Daigao Chen 1,2Lei Wang 1,2,3Xi Xiao 1,2,3,*Shaohua Yu 1,2,3
Author Affiliations
1 State Key Laboratory of Optical Communication Technologies and Networks, Wuhan Research Institute of Posts & Telecommunications (WRI), Wuhan 430074, China
2 National Information Optoelectronics Innovation Center, Wuhan 430074, China
3 Peng Cheng Laboratory, Shenzhen 518055, China
Figures & Tables

Fig. 1. (a) Three-dimensional (3D) schematic and (b) cross-sectional view of the proposed sidewall doping Ge-Si photodetector. (c), (d) Simulated static optical field and electric field distribution in the Ge region for TE and TM modes. The bias voltage is 3  V. (e) Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of Ge-Si PD. (f) Optical micrograph of the Ge-Si PD. SSC, spot size conversion.

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Fig. 2. (a) Current–voltage (I-V) characteristics of Ge-Si PD in the dark illuminated state. (b) Measured external and calculated internal responsivities of the Ge-Si PD for TE and TM modes in the C+L bands.

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Fig. 3. (a) Dark current distribution of PD devices at different reticle sites under 3  V bias. (b) 3 dB bandwidth distribution of PD devices at different reticle sites under 3  V bias.

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Fig. 4. Schematic of the experimental setup for measurement of the high-speed eye diagrams. The black and red lines represent optical and electrical connections, respectively. AWG, arbitrary waveform generator; EDFA, erbium doped fiber amplifier; VOA, variable optical attenuator; PC, polarization controller; PD, photodetector; TFLNOI MZM, thin film lithium niobate on insulator Mach–Zehnder modulator.

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Fig. 5. Measured 100 Gbaud PAM-4 eye diagrams of TE and TM polarizations under a 3  V bias voltage at 1550 nm input wavelength. The time scale is 3 ps/Div. The voltage scale is 6 mV/Div.

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Fig. 6. Measured 100 Gbaud PAM-4 eye diagrams at 1530, 1550, 1580, and 1610 nm input wavelengths. The time scale is 3 ps/Div. The voltage scale is 6 mV/Div.

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Fig. 7. Measured 120, 130, 140, and 150 Gbit/s NRZ eye diagrams under a 3  V bias voltage. The time scale is 3 ps/Div.

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Fig. 8. Measured 100, 112, 128, and 145 Gbaud PAM-4, and 100, 112, 128, and 136 Gbaud PAM-8 eye diagrams under a 3  V bias voltage with approximately 0.8 mA DC. The time scale is 3 ps/Div.

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Xiao Hu, Dingyi Wu, Ye Liu, Daigao Chen, Lei Wang, Xi Xiao, Shaohua Yu. 408 Gbit/s PAM-8 sidewall-doped germanium–silicon photodetector[J]. Photonics Research, 2023, 11(6): 961.

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