光学学报, 2023, 43 (16): 1623007, 网络出版: 2023-08-01   

不同自由度琼斯矩阵超构表面结构设计及应用 下载: 1275次特邀综述亮点文章

Design and Application of Jones Matrix Metasurface with Different Degrees of Freedom
作者单位
暨南大学纳米光子学研究院广东省纳米光学操控重点实验室,广东 广州 511443
图 & 表

图 1. 基于超构表面结构的光场调控。(a)超构表面对光场的调控可以用一个2×2的琼斯矩阵描述,其建立了入射光和出射光属性(振幅、相位和偏振)之间的联系;(b)不同自由度琼斯矩阵超构表面实现不同的光学功能

Fig. 1. Optical manipulation based on metasurface. (a) Optical manipulation by metasurface can be described by a 2×2 Jones matrix, which establishes the relationship between the properties of incident and output lights; (b) realization of different optical functionalities by metasurface with different degrees of freedom (DOFs) in Jones matrix

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图 2. 单自由度琼斯矩阵超构表面结构设计及应用。(a)基于纳米棒转角自由度的几何相位,以及(b)(c)改变结构尺寸,包括改变纳米棒的长短轴或者圆盘的半径,实现共振(或传输)相位调控或者振幅调控,从而实现单自由度琼斯矩阵的单元结构设计;基于几何相位的(d)超透镜功能35、(e)高效率全息45和(f)反常折射现象52;基于共振或传输相位的(g)反常反射67和(h)全息73;(i)改变纳米棒长度82,以及(j)(k)改变圆盘半径8490来实现全彩结构色

Fig. 2. Structure design and applications of Jones matrix metasurface with one degree of freedom. Unit design of Jones matrix with one degree of freedom (a) by geometric phase based on the rotational angle of nanorod, and (b) (c) by changing the structure size, including the length long and short axes of the nanorod or the radius of the disk, to achieve resonance (or propagation) phase or amplitude modulation; optical functionalities of (d) metalens[35], (e) high efficiency hologram[45], and (f) anomalous refraction[52] based on geometric phase; optical functionalities of (g) anomalous refraction[67] and (h) hologram[73] based on resonance or propagation phase; full-color printing based on amplitude modulation by (i) changing the length of nanorod[82] and (j) (k) the radius of disk[84, 90]

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图 3. 双自由度琼斯矩阵超构表面结构设计及应用。(a)(b)通过改变纳米棒长短轴长度实现两个正交方向的共振(或传输)相位调控和振幅调控;(c)通过改变纳米棒长轴尺寸和转角自由度实现双自由度琼斯矩阵;(d)基于双纳米棒转角自由度实现琼斯矩阵单个分量的振幅和相位调控;(e)基于图3(a)的单元结构实现偏振控制的双全息生成91;(f)基于图3(b)的单元结构实现立体3D图像显示92;(g)基于图3(c)的单元结构实现左右旋光反常折射角的独立调控93;(h)基于图3(d)的单元结构实现彩色打印图像和全息图像的集成32

Fig. 3. Structure design and applications of Jones matrix metasurface with two degrees of freedom. (a)(b) Realization of resonance (or propagation) phase control and amplitude control in two orthogonal directions based on the size changing of the length of long and short axes of the nanorod; (c) realization of Jones matrix metasurface with two degrees of freedom based on the size change of the length of long axis of the nanorod and the rotational angle; (d) amplitude and phase control of one component of Jones matrix based on the rotation-angle freedom of two nanorods; (e) polarization controlled dual holographic images[91] based on unit structure in Fig. 3(a); (f) stereoscopic 3D image display[92] based on the unit structure of Fig. 3(b); (g) independent control of the anomalous refraction angles of the left and right circular polarizations[93] based on the unit structure in Fig. 3(c); (h) integration of color printing and holographic image[32] based on the unit structure in Fig. 3(d)

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图 4. 三自由度琼斯矩阵超构表面结构设计及应用。(a)基于纳米棒结构长短轴的传输相位和转角自由度实现三自由度琼斯矩阵;(b)实现任意正交偏振态的独立相位调控114;(c)实现任意正交偏振态的独立振幅调控115;(d)基于琼斯矩阵3个分量的独立相位调控,实现在3种偏振态组合下的独立全息图像117

Fig. 4. Structure design and applications of Jones matrix metasurface with three degrees of freedom. (a) Realization of three-degree-of-freedom Jones matrix based on two independent transmission phases along the major and minor axes and rotational angle of the nanorod; (b) independent phase control of arbitrary orthogonal polarization states[114]; (c) independent amplitude control of arbitrary orthogonal polarization state[115]; (d) independent holographic image under the combination of three incidence-output polarization states based on the independent phase control of three components of Jones matrix[117]

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图 5. 四自由度琼斯矩阵超构表面结构设计及应用。(a)具有转角自由度和一个方向的传输相位自由度的纳米棒结构示意图;(b)产生任意振幅、相位和偏振态光场示意图,但不满足几何相位约束条件;(c)满足几何相位约束条件产生任意光场示意图;(d)基于单个纳米棒结构产生任意光场,生成具有任意图案和偏振态的矢量光束118;(e)~(h)其他基于图5(a)纳米棒变型的结构实现任意光场,其中图5(h)中引入了迂回相位;(i)基于图5(e)单元结构生成任意光场,实现多通道、多角度调控的任意空间分布的矢量光场119;(j)基于图5(f)单元结构实现任意光场120;(k)基于图5(g)单元结构实现任意光场120;(l)基于图5(h)单元结构实现任意光场,并应用于完美矢量涡旋光束产生121;(m)基于图5(h)单元结构实现对任意振幅、相位和偏振态之间的转化122

Fig. 5. Structure design and applications of Jones matrix metasurface with four degrees of freedom. (a) Schematic of nanorod with rotational-angle degree of freedom and transmission-phase degree of freedom along one direction; (b) diagram of generating optical field with arbitrary amplitude, phase, and polarization, which does not meet the geometric phase constraints; (c) diagram of generating arbitrary optical field which meets the geometric phase constraints; (d) arbitrary optical field generation to realize vector beam with arbitrary patterns and polarization states[118] based on single nanorod structure; (e)–(h) other structures based on the nanorod in Fig. 5(a) to realize arbitrary optical field, where the detour phase is introduced in Fig. 5(h); (i) arbitrary optical field generation to realize multi-channel and multi-angle optical control[119] based on the unit structure in Fig. 5(e); (j) arbitrary optical field generation[120] based on the unit structure in Fig. 5(f); (k) arbitrary optical field generation[120] based on the unit structure in Fig. 5(g); (l) arbitrary optical field generation to realize perfect vector vortex beam[121] based on the unit structure in Fig. 5(h); (m) conversion between two arbitrary amplitude, phase, and polarization states[122] based on the unit structure in Fig. 5(h)

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图 6. 六自由度琼斯矩阵超构表面结构设计及应用。(a)利用两个纳米棒结构实现六自由度琼斯矩阵的单元结构设计,每个结构具有完整的3个自由度,包括转角和长短轴方向的传输相位;(b)利用4个纳米棒结构实现六自由度琼斯矩阵的单元结构设计,每个纳米棒只考虑其转角自由度,并引入其位置依赖的迂回相位;(c)基于图6(a)单元结构实现在传播方向上任意的连续偏振变化126;(d)基于图6(a)单元结构实现任意正交偏振态下独立振幅和相位调控128;(e)基于图6(a)单元结构实现任意偏振态转化为同一种偏振态功能129;(f)基于图6(b)单元结构的六自由度琼斯矩阵,在3种不同偏振态的组合下(xxyyxy/yx)实现独立的打印和全息图像集成127

Fig. 6. Structure design and applications of Jones matrix metasurface with six degrees of freedom. (a) Design of unit structure to realize Jones matrix with six degrees of freedom using two nanorod structures, each with three complete degrees of freedom, including two transmission phases along the major and minor axes and the rotation-angle degree of freedom; (b) design of unit structure to realize Jones matrix with six degrees of freedom using four nanorod structures, which only considering its rotation-angle degrees of freedom and position-dependent detour phase; (c) continuous polarization change in the propagation direction[126] based on the unit structure of Fig. 6(a); (d) independent amplitude and phase control of arbitrary orthogonal polarization state[128] based on the unit structure in Fig. 6(a); (e) conversion of any polarization state into the same polarization state[129] based on the unit structure in Fig. 6(a); (f) independent printing and holographic image integration under the combination of three different incidence-output polarization states (xx, yy,and xy/yx)[127] based on the unit structure in Fig. 6(b)

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图 7. 八自由度琼斯矩阵超构表面结构设计及应用。(a)利用双层紧凑型纳米棒结构实现八自由度琼斯矩阵131;(b)基于图7(a)结构在右旋光入射下产生径向偏振的三维螺旋线,左旋光入射下在不同位置生成不同偏振态的全息图的应用实例131;(c)利用双层超构表面结构实现八自由度琼斯矩阵,两层结构相距数百微米130;(d)基于图7(b)结构,在4种入射-探测偏振组合(xxxyyxyy)下打印图像和全息图像集成的八自由度琼斯矩阵实验测量130;(e)基于八自由度琼斯矩阵,实现对任意两个偏振态的独立振幅和相位调控,同时转化为任意两个偏振态的示意图130

Fig. 7. Structure design and applications of Jones matrix metasurface with eight degrees of freedom. (a) Realization of Jones matrix with eight degrees of freedom by double-layer compact nanorod structure[131]; (b) an application example of producing a 3D spiral pattern with radial polarization under RCP incidence and two different holographic images on different transverse planes with gradually varying polarization states[131] based on the structure in Fig. 7(a); (c) realization of Jones matrix with eight degrees of freedom by two layer metasurfaces[130], where the distance between the two layers is hundreds of microns; (d) experimental verification of the Jones matrix with eight degrees of freedom[130] proposed in Fig. 7(b), where independent printings and holographic images are observed under the four combinations of incident and detection polarization (xx, xy, yx, yy); (e) independent amplitude and phase control on any set of two polarizations and conversions to arbitrary two polarizations[130] based on the Jones matrix metasurface with eight degrees of freedom

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包燕军, 李宝军. 不同自由度琼斯矩阵超构表面结构设计及应用[J]. 光学学报, 2023, 43(16): 1623007. Yanjun Bao, Baojun Li. Design and Application of Jones Matrix Metasurface with Different Degrees of Freedom[J]. Acta Optica Sinica, 2023, 43(16): 1623007.

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