Author Affiliations
Abstract
1 University Paris-Saclayhttps://ror.org/00zay3w86, CNRS, Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (C2N), Palaiseau 91120, France
2 University Grenoble Alpes, CEA, LETI, Grenoble 38000, France
3 Optoelectronics Research Centre, Zepler Institute for Photonics and Nanoelectronics, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK
4 e-mail: jonathan.peltier@c2n.upsaclay.fr
5 e-mail: Weiwei.Zhang@soton.ac.uk
Silicon-based electro-optic modulators contribute to easing the integration of high-speed and low-power consumption circuits for classical optical communications and data computations. Beyond the plasma dispersion modulation, an alternative solution in silicon is to exploit the DC Kerr effect, which generates an equivalent linear electro-optical effect enabled by applying a large DC electric field. Although some theoretical and experimental studies have shown its existence in silicon, limited contributions relative to plasma dispersion have been achieved in high-speed modulation so far. This paper presents high-speed optical modulation based on the DC Kerr effect in silicon PIN waveguides. The contributions of both plasma dispersion and Kerr effects have been analyzed in different waveguide configurations, and we demonstrated that the Kerr induced modulation is dominant when a high external DC electric field is applied in PIN waveguides. High-speed optical modulation response is analyzed, and eye diagrams up to 80 Gbit/s in NRZ format are obtained under a d.c. voltage of 30 V. This work paves the way to exploit the Kerr effect to generate high-speed Pockels-like optical modulation.
Photonics Research
2024, 12(1): 51
Author Affiliations
Abstract
1 Centre de Nanosciences et de Nanotechnologies (C2N), CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, 91120 Palaiseau, France
2 e-mail: lafforgue43@gmail.com
3 e-mail: laurent.vivien@c2n.upsaclay.fr
Nonlinear optics has not stopped evolving, offering opportunities to develop novel functionalities in photonics. Supercontinuum generation, a nonlinear optical phenomenon responsible for extreme spectral broadening, attracts the interest of researchers due to its high potential in many applications, including sensing, imaging, or optical communications. In particular, with the emergence of silicon photonics, integrated supercontinuum sources in silicon platforms have seen tremendous progress during the past decades. This article aims at giving an overview of supercontinuum generation in three main silicon-compatible photonics platforms, namely, silicon, silicon germanium, and silicon nitride, as well as the essential theoretical elements to understand this fascinating phenomenon.
Photonics Research
2022, 10(3): 03000A43
Author Affiliations
Abstract
1 Univ. Paris-Saclay, CNRS, Centre for Nanosciences and Nanotechnologies, 91120 Palaiseau, France
2 Univ. Rennes, CNRS, FOTON-UMR 6082, F-22305 Lannion, France
3 ST Microelectronics, 850 rue Jean Monnet, 38920 Crolles, France
4 Current address: ITEAM Research Institute, Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain
Flat electro-optical frequency combs play an important role in a wide range of applications, such as metrology, spectroscopy, or microwave photonics. As a key technology for the integration of optical circuits, silicon photonics could benefit from on-chip, tunable, flat frequency comb generators. In this article, two different architectures based on silicon modulators are studied for this purpose. They rely on a time to frequency conversion principle to shape the comb envelope. Using a numerical model of the silicon traveling-wave phase modulators, their driving schemes are optimized before their performances are simulated and compared. A total of nine lines could be obtained within a 2 dB flatness, with a line-spacing ranging from 0.1 to 7 GHz. Since this tunability is a major asset of electro-optical frequency combs, the effect of segmenting the phase modulators is finally investigated, showing that the flat lines spacing could be extended up to 39 GHz by this method.
Photonics Research
2021, 9(10): 10002068
Author Affiliations
Abstract
1 Université Paris-Saclay, CNRS, Centre de Nanosciences et de Nanotechnologies, Palaiseau, France
2 Zhejiang University, Centre for Optical and Electromagnetic Research, State Key Laboratory for Modern Optical Instrumentation, Hangzhou, China
Dispersion engineering of optical waveguides is among the most important steps in enabling the realization of Kerr optical frequency combs. A recurring problem is the limited bandwidth in which the nonlinear phase matching condition is satisfied, due to the dispersion of the waveguide. This limitation is particularly stringent in high-index-contrast technologies such as silicon-on-insulator. We propose a general approach to stretch the bandwidth of Kerr frequency combs based on subwavelength engineering of single-mode waveguides with self-adaptive boundaries. The wideband flattened dispersion operation comes from the particular property of the waveguide optical mode that automatically self-adapts its spatial profile at different wavelengths to slightly different effective spatial spans determined by its effective index values. This flattened dispersion relies on the squeezing of small normal-dispersion regions between two anomalous spectral zones, which enables it to achieve two Cherenkov radiation points and substantially broaden the comb, achieving a bandwidth between 2.2 and 3.4 μm wavelength. This strategy opens up a design space for trimming the spectra of Kerr frequency combs using high-index-contrast platforms and can provide benefits to various nonlinear applications in which the manipulation of energy spacing and phase matching are pivotal.
nonlinear optics effective boundary subwavelength grating silicon frequency comb 
Advanced Photonics
2020, 2(4): 046001
Author Affiliations
Abstract
1 Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (C2N), CNRS, Université Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, UMR 9001, 91405 Orsay Cedex, France
2 Technologie R&D, STMicroelectronics, SAS, 850 rue Jean Monnet, 38920 Crolles, France
3 III-V lab, a joint venture from Nokia Bell Labs, Thales and CEA, 1 Avenue Augustin Fresnel, 91767 Palaiseau Cedex, France
We report supercontinuum generation in nitrogen-rich (N-rich) silicon nitride waveguides fabricated through back-end complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible processes on a 300 mm platform. By pumping in the anomalous dispersion regime at a wavelength of 1200 nm, two-octave spanning spectra covering the visible and near-infrared ranges, including the O band, were obtained. Numerical calculations showed that the nonlinear index of N-rich silicon nitride is within the same order of magnitude as that of stoichiometric silicon nitride, despite the lower silicon content. N-rich silicon nitride then appears to be a promising candidate for nonlinear devices compatible with back-end CMOS processes.
Photonics Research
2020, 8(3): 03000352
Author Affiliations
Abstract
1 Centre de Nanosciences et Nanotechnologies (C2N), Université-Paris-Sud, CNRS UMR 9001, Université Paris-Saclay, Orsay 91405, France
2 Current address: Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
3 Institut des Sciences Analytiques et de Physico-Chimie pour l’Environnement et les Matériaux, CNRS, Université de Pau et des Pays de l’Adour, 64053 Pau Cedex, France
4 Laboratoire Charles Fabry, Institut d’Optique Graduate School, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, 91127 Palaiseau Cedex, France
5 Current address: LP2N, Institut d’Optique Graduate School, CNRS, Univ. Bordeaux, 33400 Talence, France
6 Department of Physics, Bridgewater State University, Bridgewater, Massachusetts 02325, USA
7 e-mail: laurent.vivien@c2n.upsaclay.fr
Nonlinear all-optical technology is an ultimate route for next-generation ultrafast signal processing of optical communication systems. New nonlinear functionalities need to be implemented in photonics, and complex oxides are considered as promising candidates due to their wide panel of attributes. In this context, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) stands out, thanks to its ability to be epitaxially grown on silicon, adapting the lattice for the crystalline oxide family of materials. We report, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, a detailed theoretical and experimental study about the third-order nonlinear susceptibility in crystalline YSZ. Via self-phase modulation-induced broadening and considering the in-plane orientation of YSZ, we experimentally obtained an effective Kerr coefficient of n^2YSZ=4.0±2×10?19 m2·W?1 in an 8% (mole fraction) YSZ waveguide. In agreement with the theoretically predicted n^2YSZ=1.3×10?19 m2· W?1, the third-order nonlinear coefficient of YSZ is comparable with the one of silicon nitride, which is already being used in nonlinear optics. These promising results are a new step toward the implementation of functional oxides for nonlinear optical applications.
Photonics Research
2020, 8(2): 02000110
Author Affiliations
Abstract
1 Centre de Nanosciences et de Nanotechnologies, CNRS, University of Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, C2N–Palaiseau, 91120 Palaiseau, France
2 University Grenoble Alpes and CEA, LETI, Minatec Campus, F-38054 Grenoble, Grenoble Cedex, France
3 Technology R&D, STMicroelectronics SAS, 850 rue Jean Monnet–38920 Crolles, France
Near-infrared germanium (Ge) photodetectors monolithically integrated on top of silicon-on-insulator substrates are universally regarded as key enablers towards chip-scale nanophotonics, with applications ranging from sensing and health monitoring to object recognition and optical communications. In this work, we report on the high-data-rate performance pin waveguide photodetectors made of a lateral hetero-structured silicon-Ge-silicon (Si-Ge-Si) junction operating under low reverse bias at 1.55 μm. The pin photodetector integration scheme considerably eases device manufacturing and is fully compatible with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology. In particular, the hetero-structured Si-Ge-Si photodetectors show efficiency-bandwidth products of ~9 GHz at ?1 V and ~30 GHz at ?3 V, with a leakage dark current as low as ~150 nA, allowing superior signal detection of high-speed data traffic. A bit-error rate of 10?9 is achieved for conventional 10 Gbps, 20 Gbps, and 25 Gbps data rates, yielding optical power sensitivities of ?13.85 dBm, ?12.70 dBm, and ?11.25 dBm, respectively. This demonstration opens up new horizons towards cost-effective Ge pin waveguide photodetectors that combine fast device operation at low voltages with standard semiconductor fabrication processes, as desired for reliable on-chip architectures in next-generation nanophotonics integrated circuits.
Photonics Research
2019, 7(4): 04000437
Author Affiliations
Abstract
1 Centre de Nanosciences et de Nanotechnologies (C2N), CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris Saclay, C2N Orsay, 91405 Orsay cedex, France
2 Laboratoire Charles Fabry, Institut d’Optique Graduate School, CNRS, Université Paris Saclay, 2 Avenue Augustin Fresnel, 91127 Palaiseau cedex, France
3 Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology-MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
4 College of Optics and Photonics-CREOL, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816, USA
In this paper, we report the experimental characterization of highly nonlinear GeSbS chalcogenide glass waveguides. We used a single-beam characterization protocol that accounts for the magnitude and sign of the real and imaginary parts of the third-order nonlinear susceptibility of integrated Ge23Sb7S70 (GeSbS) chalcogenide glass waveguides in the near-infrared wavelength range at λ=1580 nm. We measured a waveguide nonlinear parameter of 7.0±0.7 W 1·m 1, which corresponds to a nonlinear refractive index of n2=(0.93±0.08)×10 18 m2/W, comparable to that of silicon, but with an 80 times lower two-photon absorption coefficient βTPA=(0.010±0.003) cm/GW, accompanied with linear propagation losses as low as 0.5 dB/cm. The outstanding linear and nonlinear properties of GeSbS, with a measured nonlinear figure of merit FOMTPA=6.0±1.4 at λ=1580 nm, ultimately make it one of the most promising integrated platforms for the realization of nonlinear functionalities.
Integrated optics materials Nonlinear optical materials Nonlinear optics, integrated optics 
Photonics Research
2018, 6(5): 05000B37
Author Affiliations
Abstract
Centre de Nanosciences et de Nanotechnologies, UMR 9001 (CNRS/Université Paris-Sud), Université Paris-Saclay, 91405 Orsay, France
We introduce a family of slot photonic crystal waveguides (SPhCWs) for the hybrid integration of low-index active materials in silicon photonics with energy-confinement factors of 30% in low-index regions. The proposed approach, which is based on a periodic indentation of the etched slot in the middle of the SPhCW, makes it possible to reconcile a simultaneously narrow and wide slot for exploiting the two modes of even symmetry of a SPhCW. The resulting mode-selection mechanism allows a flexible choice of the modes to be used. Furthermore, the proposed structure offers tremendous flexibility for adjusting the dispersive properties of the slot-confined modes, in particular of their slow-light effects. Flat band slow light in a bandwidth of about 60 nm with a group velocity dispersion factor |β2| below 1 ps2/mm is numerically demonstrated by this approach, corresponding to a normalized delay bandwidth product of around 0.4. These results, obtained from hollow-core periodic waveguides that are directly designed in view of hybrid integration of active materials in mechanically robust structures (not based on free-standing membranes) could pave the way for the realization of on-chip slow-light bio-sensing, active hybrid-silicon optoelectronic devices, or all-optical hybrid-silicon nonlinear functionalities.
Photonic crystal waveguides Photonic crystals Optical devices 
Photonics Research
2018, 6(1): 01000054

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