Author Affiliations
Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque NM 87185 USA
Helium or neopentane can be used as surrogate gas fill for deuterium (D2) or deuterium-tritium (DT) in laser-plasma interaction studies. Surrogates are convenient to avoid flammability hazards or the integration of cryogenics in an experiment. To test the degree of equivalency between deuterium and helium, experiments were conducted in the Pecos target chamber at Sandia National Laboratories. Observables such as laser propagation and signatures of laser-plasma instabilities (LPI) were recorded for multiple laser and target configurations. It was found that some observables can differ significantly despite the apparent similarity of the gases with respect to molecular charge and weight. While a qualitative behaviour of the interaction may very well be studied by finding a suitable compromise of laser absorption, electron density, and LPI cross sections, a quantitative investigation of expected values for deuterium fills at high laser intensities is not likely to succeed with surrogate gases.
Laser and Particle Beams
2023, 2023(3): 2083295
Author Affiliations
1 ENEA Fusion and Technology for Nuclear Safety and Security Department C.R. Frascati Rome Italy
2 University of Pisa Physics Department E. Fermi Pisa Italy
The energy problem is an open issue becoming increasingly pressing. The possibility to use nuclear fusion as an alternative energy source is thus acquiring progressively more importance and many investors are pushing to achieve the goal of an electric plant based on fusion. The most studied reaction is the deuterium-tritium one, but this poses several technical issues related to the handling of the radioactive fuel and neutron generation. In this frame, the aneutronic 11B(p, α)2α fusion reaction has attracted the interest of many researchers. Despite a fusion reactor based on pB is still a long-term goal, the study of this reaction is important both for astrophysics research and for its possible employment in schemes of high brightness source of α particles for applications, as for instance in medicine. Nevertheless, the univocal identification of the produced alphas is a well-known challenging task when the reaction is triggered by high-intensity lasers. Indeed, due to the multifaceted emission typical of laser-matter interactions, the signal coming from alphas is often superimposed to that generated by protons and by other ions, and in many cases, it is therefore hardly recognizable. In this work, we analysed the possibility of employing a Thomson spectrometer (TS) with an adequate differential filtering system for the exclusion from the α-particle trace, the contribution of all other ionic species. Moreover, for the energy ranges where the filtering method cannot be successfully applied, we investigated the feasibility of integrating in the TS assembly a particle detector for time-of-flight (TOF) measurements.
Laser and Particle Beams
2023, 2023(2): 7831712
Author Affiliations
1 INFN-LNF, Via Enrico Fermi 54, 00044Frascati, Italy
2 Central Laser Facility, Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, DidcotOX11 0QX, England
3 INFN-LNF, Via Enrico Fermi 54, 00044Frascati, Italy
4 ENEA Fusion and Technologies for Nuclear Safety and Security Department, C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044Frascati, Italy
5 ENEA Fusion and Technologies for Nuclear Safety and Security Department, C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044Frascati, Italy
6 University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Industrial Engineering Department, Via Cracovia 50, 00133Roma, Italy
The interaction of ultra-intense high-power lasers with solid-state targets has been largely studied for the past 20 years as a future compact proton and ion source. Indeed, the huge potential established on the target surface by the escaping electrons provides accelerating gradients of TV/m. This process, called target normal sheath acceleration, involves a large number of phenomena and is very difficult to study because of the picosecond scale dynamics. At the SPARC_LAB Test Facility, the high-power laser FLAME is employed in experiments with solid targets, aiming to study possible correlations between ballistic fast electrons and accelerated protons. In detail, we have installed in the interaction chamber two different diagnostics, each one devoted to characterizing one beam. The first relies on electro-optic sampling, and it has been adopted to completely characterize the ultrafast electron components. On the other hand, a time-of-flight detector, based on chemical-vapour-deposited diamond, has allowed us to retrieve the proton energy spectrum. In this work, we report preliminary studies about simultaneous temporal resolved measurements of both the first forerunner escaping electrons and the accelerated protons for different laser parameters.
electro-optic sampling diagnostics high-power laser laser–plasma interaction time-of-flight diagnostics target normal sheath acceleration ultrashort high-intensity laser pulses 
High Power Laser Science and Engineering
2020, 8(2): 02000e23
Author Affiliations
1 ENEA, Fusion and Technologies for Nuclear Safety Department, C.R. Frascati, 00044Frascati, Italy
2 CELIA, University of Bordeaux, CNRS, CEA, 33405Talence, France
3 CEA, DAM, CESTA, 33116Le Barp, France
4 Department of Physics, York Plasma Institute, University of York, Heslington, YorkYO10 5DD, UK
5 Central Laser Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, STFC, UKRI, Chilton, Didcot, OxfordshireOX11 0QX, UK
6 Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, 166 27 Prague 6, Czech Republic
7 Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institut für Strahlenphysik, 01328Dresden, Germany
8 AWE plc, Aldermaston, Reading, BerkshireRG7 4PR, UK
9 Centro de Laseres Pulsados (CLPU), 37185Villamayor, Salamanca, Spain
10 CELIA, University of Bordeaux, CNRS, CEA, 33405Talence, France
11 AWE plc, Aldermaston, Reading, BerkshireRG7 4PR, UK
12 ELI Beamlines, Institute of Physics, Czech Academy of Sciences, 25241Dolní B?e?any, Czech Republic
13 Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing100190, China
14 Institute of Physics of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Na Slovance 2, 182 21Prague, Czech Republic
15 Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing100190, China
16 Department of Physics, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance (SUPA), University of Strathclyde, GlasgowG4 0NG, UK
17 Laboratory PIIM, University Aix-Marseille-CNRS, 13397Marseille, France
18 Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, 01-497Warsaw, Poland
19 The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, LondonSW7 2AZ, UK
20 PHELIX Group, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, D-64291Darmstadt, Germany
21 Central Laser Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, STFC, UKRI, Chilton, Didcot, OxfordshireOX11 0QX, UK
This paper provides an up-to-date review of the problems related to the generation, detection and mitigation of strong electromagnetic pulses created in the interaction of high-power, high-energy laser pulses with different types of solid targets. It includes new experimental data obtained independently at several international laboratories. The mechanisms of electromagnetic field generation are analyzed and considered as a function of the intensity and the spectral range of emissions they produce. The major emphasis is put on the GHz frequency domain, which is the most damaging for electronics and may have important applications. The physics of electromagnetic emissions in other spectral domains, in particular THz and MHz, is also discussed. The theoretical models and numerical simulations are compared with the results of experimental measurements, with special attention to the methodology of measurements and complementary diagnostics. Understanding the underlying physical processes is the basis for developing techniques to mitigate the electromagnetic threat and to harness electromagnetic emissions, which may have promising applications.
electromagnetic pulses high-power lasers diagnostics mitigation techniques 
High Power Laser Science and Engineering
2020, 8(2): 02000e22

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