The heterogeneous integration of photonic integrated circuits (PICs) with a diverse range of optoelectronic materials has emerged as a transformative approach, propelling photonic chips toward larger scales, superior performance, and advanced integration levels. Notably, two-dimensional (2D) materials, such as graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), black phosphorus (BP), and hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), exhibit remarkable device performance and integration capabilities, offering promising potential for large-scale implementation in PICs. In this paper, we first present a comprehensive review of recent progress, systematically categorizing the integration of photonic circuits with 2D materials based on their types while also emphasizing their unique advantages. Then, we discuss the integration approaches of 2D materials with PICs. We also summarize the technical challenges in the heterogeneous integration of 2D materials in photonics and envision their immense potential for future applications in PICs.two-dimensional materials silicon photonics heterogeneous integration photonic integrated circuits
Chinese Optics Letters
2023, 21(11): 110007
A hybrid integrated 16-channel silicon transmitter based on co-designed photonic integrated circuits (PICs) and electrical chiplets is demonstrated. The driver in the 65 nm CMOS process employs the combination of a distributed architecture, two-tap feedforward equalization (FFE), and a push–pull output stage, exhibiting an estimated differential output swing of 4.0Vpp. The rms jitter of 2.0 ps is achieved at 50 Gb/s under nonreturn-to-zero on–off keying (NRZ-OOK) modulation. The PICs are fabricated on a standard silicon-on-insulator platform and consist of 16 parallel silicon dual-drive Mach–Zehnder modulators on a single chip. The chip-on-board co-packaged Si transmitter is constituted by the multichannel chiplets without any off-chip bias control, which significantly simplifies the system complexity. Experimentally, the open and clear optical eye diagrams of selected channels up to 50 Gb/s OOK with extinction ratios exceeding 3 dB are obtained without any digital signal processing. The power consumption of the Si transmitter with a high integration density featuring a throughput up to 800 Gb/s is only 5.35 pJ/bit, indicating a great potential for massively parallel terabit-scale optical interconnects for future hyperscale data centers and high-performance computing systems.
2023, 11(2): 143
The integrated microwave photonic filter (MPF), as a compelling candidate for next-generation radio-frequency (RF) applications, has been widely investigated for decades. However, most integrated MPFs reported thus far have merely incorporated passive photonic components onto a chip-scale platform, while all necessary active devices are still bulk and discrete. Though few attempts to higher photonic integration of MPFs have been executed, the achieved filtering performances are fairly limited, which impedes the pathway to practical deployments. Here, we demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, an all-integrated MPF combined with high filtering performances, through hybrid integration of an InP chip-based laser and a monolithic silicon photonic circuit consisting of a dual-drive Mach–Zehnder modulator, a high- ring resonator, and a photodetector. This integrated MPF exhibits a high spectral resolution as narrow as 360 MHz, a wide-frequency tunable range covering the S-band to K-band (3 to 25 GHz), and a large rejection ratio of . Moreover, the filtering response can be agilely switched between the bandpass and band-stop function with a transient respond time (). Compared with previous MPFs in a similar integration level, the obtained spectral resolution in this work is dramatically improved by nearly one order of magnitude, while the valid frequency tunable range is broadened more than twice, which can satisfy the essential filtering requirements in actual RF systems. As a paradigm demonstration oriented to real-world scenarios, high-resolution RF filtering of realistic microwave signals aiming for interference rejection and channel selection is performed. Our work points out a feasible route to a miniaturized, high-performance, and cost-effective MPF leveraging hybrid integration approach, thus enabling a range of RF applications from wireless communication to radar toward the higher-frequency region, more compact size, and lower power consumption.
2021, 9(8): 08001569
Optical microring resonators are extensively employed in a wide range of physical studies and applications due to the resonance enhancement property. Incorporating coupling control of a microring resonator is necessary in many scenarios, but modifications are essentially added to the resonator and impair the capability of optical enhancement. Here, we propose a flexible coupling structure based on adiabatic elimination that allows low-loss active coupling control without any modifications to the resonators. The self-coupling coefficient can be monotonically or non-monotonically controllable by the proposed coupler, potentially at a high speed. The characteristic of the coupler when implemented in silicon microring resonators is investigated in detail using substantiated analytical theory and experiments. This work provides a general method in coupling control while ensuring the resonance enhancement property, making active coupling control in a resonator-waveguide system feasible.silicon photonics adiabatic elimination resonance system
Chinese Optics Letters
2020, 18(1): 013601
An on-chip, high extinction ratio transverse electric (TE)-pass polarizer using a silicon hybrid plasmonic grating is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Utilizing plasmonics to manipulate the effective index and mode distribution, the transverse magnetic mode is reflected and absorbed, while the TE mode passes through with relatively low propagation loss. For a 6-μm-long device, the measurement result shows that the extinction ratio in the wavelength range of 1.52 to 1.58 μm varies from 24 to 33.7 dB and the insertion loss is 2.8–4.9 dB. Moreover, the structure exhibits large alignment tolerance and is compatible with silicon-on-insulator fabrication technology.
2019, 7(3): 03000289
The optical saturation characteristics in the germanium-on-silicon (Ge-on-Si) photodetector are studied for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. The relationship between the optical saturation characteristics and the optical field distribution in the Ge layer is illustrated by the simulation. This theory is verified by comparative experiments with single-injection and dual-injection structures. The dual-injection photodetector with a more balanced and uniform optical field distribution has a 13% higher responsivity at low optical power and 74.4% higher saturation current at 1550 nm. At higher optical power, the bandwidth of the dual-injection photodetector is five times larger than that of the single-injection photodetector.250.0040 Detectors 040.5160 Photodetectors
Chinese Optics Letters
2018, 16(7): 072502
Reduction of modulator energy consumption to is essential for the sustainable development of communication systems. Lumped modulators might be a viable solution if instructed by a complete theory system. Here, we present a complete analytical electro-optic response theory, energy consumption analysis, and eye diagrams on absolute scales for lumped modulators. Consequently the speed limitation is understood and alleviated by single-drive configuration, and comprehensive knowledge into the energy dependence on structural parameters significantly reduces energy consumption. The results show that silicon modulation energy as low as 80.8 and can be achieved at 28 Gbd under 50 and 10 Ω impedance drivers, respectively. A 50 Gbd modulation is also shown to be possible. The analytical models can be extended to lumped modulators on other material platforms and offer a promising solution to the current challenges of modulation energy reduction.Modulators Optical switching devices Integrated optics devices
2017, 5(2): 02000134
针对近红外(800 nm)及其二倍频(400 nm)飞秒激光脉冲在金属钼表面诱导产生周期性条纹结构的情况进行了研究，分析比较了入射激光能量、脉冲重叠数、激光中心波长和加工氛围等实验参数对金属表面自组织形成的条纹结构空间周期的影响，并利用中心波长为400 nm 的飞秒激光在水环境中于单晶钼表面制备出了空间周期仅约160 nm 的条纹结构。同时针对水中加工的情况,在理论上提出了入射激光与表面等离子体波发生干涉和表面等离子体波形成驻波两种机制相互竞争的物理模型，很好地解释了实验现象，对于深入理解飞秒激光在金属表面进行纳米尺度的加工制备具有重要意义。超快光学 飞秒激光 微纳结构 表面等离子体波 干涉理论 纳米制备技术 ultrafast optics femtosecond-laser nano-structure surface plasmonic polaritons interference theory nano fabrication technology