2023, 43(16): 1623004
The entanglement distribution network connects remote users by sharing entanglement resources, which is essential for realizing quantum internet. We propose a photonic-reconfigurable entanglement distribution network (PR-EDN) based on a silicon quantum photonic chip. The entanglement resources are generated by a quantum light source array based on spontaneous four-wave mixing in silicon waveguides and distributed to different users through time-reversed Hong–Ou–Mandel interference by on-chip Mach–Zehnder interferometers with thermo-optic phase shifters (TOPSs). A chip sample is designed and fabricated, supporting a PR-EDN with 3 subnets and 24 users. The network topology of the PR-EDN could be reconfigured in three network states by controlling the quantum interference through the TOPSs, which is demonstrated experimentally. Furthermore, a reconfigurable entanglement-based quantum key distribution network is realized as an application of the PR-EDN. The reconfigurable network topology makes the PR-EDN suitable for future quantum networks requiring complicated network control and management. Moreover, it is also shown that silicon quantum photonic chips have great potential for large-scale PR-EDN, thanks to their capacities for generating and manipulating plenty of entanglement resources.
2023, 11(7): 1314
Faint light spectroscopy has many important applications such as fluorescence spectroscopy, lidar, and astronomical observations. However, the long measurement time limits its application to real-time measurement. In this work, a photon counting reconstructive spectrometer combining metasurfaces and superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors is proposed. A prototype device was fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator substrate, and its performance was characterized. Experiment results show that this device supports spectral reconstruction of mono-color lights with a resolution of 2 nm in the wavelength region of 1500–1600 nm. Its detection efficiency is 1.4%–3.2% in this wavelength region. The measurement time required by the photon counting reconstructive spectrometer was also investigated experimentally, showing its potential to be applied in scenarios requiring real-time measurement.
2023, 11(2): 234
Quantum key distribution (QKD) would play an important role in future information technologies due to its theoretically proven security based on the laws of quantum mechanics. How to realize QKDs among multiple users in an effective and simple way is crucial for its real applications in communication networks. In this work, we propose and demonstrate a fully connected QKD network without trusted node for a large number of users. Using flexible wavelength division multiplexing/demultiplexing and space division multiplexing, entanglement resources generated by a broadband energy-time entangled quantum light source are distributed to 40 users. Any two users share a part of entanglement resources, by which QKD is established between them. As a result, it realizes a fully connected network with 40 users and 780 QKD links. The performance of this network architecture is also discussed theoretically, showing its potential on developing quantum communication networks with large user numbers owing to its simplicity, scalability, and high efficiency.
Tunable coupled mechanical resonators with nonequilibrium dynamic phenomena have attracted considerable attention in quantum simulations, quantum computations, and non-Hermitian systems. In this study, we propose tunable mechanical-mode coupling based on nanobeam-double optomechanical cavities. The excited optical mode interacts with both symmetric and antisymmetric mechanical supermodes and mediates coupling at a frequency of approximately 4.96 GHz. The mechanical-mode coupling is tuned through both optical spring and gain effects, and the reduced coupled frequency difference in non-Hermitian parameter space is observed. These results benefit research on the microscopic mechanical parity–time symmetry for topology and on-chip high-sensitivity sensors.
2022, 10(8): 1819
The orbital angular momentum (OAM) carried by photons defines an infinitely dimensional discrete Hilbert space. With OAM modes, high-dimensional quantum states can be achieved for quantum communication and cryptography. Here we demonstrate a heralded single-photon source with a switchable OAM mode, which consists of a heralded single-photon source and an integrated OAM emitter as the mode converter. As the first step, the heralded single-photon source is based on the dispersion-shifted fiber. In this work, the OAM mode (quantized by topological charge ) carried by the heralded single photon (at fixed wavelength of 1555.75 nm) can be switched within the range of while the mode purity is more than 80%.
2021, 9(9): 09001865
2021, 48(15): 1513001
Micro- and nanomechanical resonators have emerged as promising platforms for sensing a broad range of physical properties, such as mass, force, torque, magnetic field, and acceleration. The sensing performance relies critically on the motional mass, mechanical frequency, and linewidth of the mechanical resonator. Herein, we demonstrate a hetero optomechanical crystal (OMC) cavity based on a silicon nanobeam structure. The cavity supports phonon lasing in a fundamental mechanical mode with a frequency of 5.91 GHz, an effective mass of 116 fg, and a mechanical linewidth narrowing in the range from 3.3 MHz to 5.2 kHz, while the optomechanical coupling rate is as high as 1.9 MHz. With this phonon laser, on-chip sensing can be predicted with a resolution of . The use of a silicon-based hetero OMC cavity that harnesses phonon lasing could pave the way toward high-precision sensors that allow silicon monolithic integration and offer unprecedented sensitivity for a broad range of physical sensing applications.
2021, 9(6): 06000937
An optomechanical crystal cavity with nonsuspended structure using material is proposed. The principle of mode confinement in the nonsuspended cavity is analyzed, and two different types of optical and acoustic defect modes are calculated through appropriate design of the cavity structure. An optomechanical coupling rate of 82.3 kHz is obtained in the proposed cavity, and the designed acoustic frequency is 3.44 GHz. The acoustic mode coupling between two nonsuspended optomechanical crystal cavities is also demonstrated, showing that the proposed cavity structure has great potential for realizing further optomechanical applications in multicavity systems.
2021, 9(5): 05000893
Smith–Purcell radiation (SPR) is the electromagnetic wave generated by free electrons passing above a diffraction grating, and it has played an important role in free-electron light sources and particle accelerators. Orbital angular momentum (OAM) is a new degree of freedom that can significantly promote the capacity of information carried by an electro-magnetic beam. In this paper, we propose an integrable method for generating vortex Smith–Purcell radiation (VSPR), namely, SPR carrying OAM, by having free-electron bunches pass on planar holographic gratings. VSPRs generated by different electron energies, with different topological charges of the OAM, radiation angles, and frequencies are demonstrated numerically. It is also found that, for high-order radiation, the topological charge of the OAM wave will be multiplied by the radiation order. This work introduces a new way to generate SPR with OAM and provides a method to achieve an integratable and tunable free-electron OAM wave source at different frequency regions.
2020, 8(8): 08001309