Author Affiliations
1 Department of Physics, University of Trento, 38122 Trento, Italy
2 Department of Mathematics and TIFPA, University of Trento, 38122 Trento, Italy
3 Department of Physics, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy
4 Centre for Sensors and Devices, Fondazione Bruno Kessler, 38123 Povo, Italy
Single-photon entanglement is a peculiar type of entanglement in which two or more degrees of freedom of a single photon are correlated quantum-mechanically. Here, we demonstrate a photonic integrated chip able to generate and manipulate single-photon path-entangled states, using a commercial red LED as light source. A Bell test, in the Clauser, Horne, Shimony, and Holt (CHSH) form, is performed to confirm the presence of entanglement, resulting in a maximum value of the CHSH correlation parameter equal to 2.605±0.004. This allows us to use it as an integrated semi-device independent quantum random number generator able to produce certified random numbers. The certification scheme is based on a Bell’s inequality violation and on a partial characterization of the experimental setup, without the need of introducing any further assumptions either on the input state or on the particular form of the measurement observables. In the end a min-entropy of 33% is demonstrated.
Photonics Research
2023, 11(9): 1484
Author Affiliations
1 Department of Physics, University of Trento, Via Sommarive 14, 38123 Trento, Italy
2 SM Optics s.r.l., Research Programs, Via John Fitzgerald Kennedy 2, 20871 Vimercate, Italy
3 Department of Information Engineering, University of Brescia, Via Branze 38, 25123 Brescia, Italy
4 Centre for Materials and Microsystems, Fondazione Bruno Kessler, 38123 Trento, Italy
In this work, we report the modeling and the experimental demonstration of intermodal spontaneous as well as stimulated four-wave mixing (FWM) in silicon waveguides. In intermodal FWM, the phase-matching condition is achieved by exploiting the different dispersion profiles of the optical modes in a multimode waveguide. Since both the energy and the wave vectors have to be conserved in the FWM process, this leads to a wide tunability of the generated photon wavelength, allowing us to achieve a large spectral conversion. We measured several waveguides that differ by their widths and demonstrate large signal generation spanning from the pump wavelength (1550 nm) down to 1202 nm. A suited setup evidences that the different waves propagated indeed on different order modes, which supports the modeling. Despite observing a reduced efficiency with respect to intramodal FWM due to the decreased modal overlap, we were able to show a maximum spectral distance between the signal and idler of 979.6 nm with a 1550 nm pump. Our measurements suggest the intermodal FWM is a viable means for large wavelength conversion and heralded photon sources.
Nonlinear optics, four-wave mixing Wavelength conversion devices Waveguides, channeled 
Photonics Research
2018, 6(8): 08000805
Author Affiliations
1 Centre for Materials and Microsystems, Fondazione Bruno Kessler, I-38123 Povo, Italy
2 Department of Physics, Nanoscience Laboratory, University of Trento, I-38123 Povo, Italy
3 INO-CNR BEC Center and Department of Physics, University of Trento, I-38123 Povo, Italy
We report on the modeling, simulation, and experimental demonstration of complete mode crossings of Fano resonances within chip-integrated microresonators. The continuous reshaping of resonant line shapes is achieved via nonlinear thermo-optical tuning when the cavity-coupled optical pump is partially absorbed by the material. The locally generated heat then produces a thermal field, which influences the spatially overlapping optical modes, allowing us to alter the relative spectral separation of resonances. Furthermore, we exploit such tunability to continuously probe the coupling between different families of quasi-degenerate modes that exhibit asymmetric Fano interactions. As a particular case, we demonstrate a complete disappearance of one of the modal features in the transmission spectrum as predicted by Fano [Phys. Rev.124, 1866 (1961)PHRVAO0031-899X10.1103/PhysRev.124.1866]. The phenomenon is modeled as a third-order nonlinearity with a spatial distribution that depends on the stored optical field and thermal diffusion within the resonator. The performed nonlinear numerical simulations are in excellent agreement with the experimental results, which confirm the validity of the developed theory.
Nonlinear optics, integrated optics Optical resonators Thermal effects Interference 
Photonics Research
2017, 5(3): 03000168

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