2023, 50(17): 1714015
Fiber components form the standard not only in modern telecommunication but also for future quantum information technology. For high-performance single-photon detection, superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SPDs) are typically fabricated on a silicon chip and fiber-coupled for easy handling and usage. The fiber-to-chip interface hinders the SPD from being an all-fiber device for full utilization of its excellent performance. Here, we report a scheme of SPD that is directly fabricated on the fiber tip. A bury-and-planar fabrication technique is developed to improve the roughness of the substrate for all-fiber detectors’ performance for single-photon detection with amorphous molybdenum silicide (MoSi) nanowires. The low material selectivity and universal planar process enable fabrication and packaging on a large scale. Such a detector responds to a broad wavelength range from 405 nm to 1550 nm at a dark count rate of 100 cps. The relaxation time of the response pulse is ~ 15 ns, which is comparable to that of on-chip SPDs. Therefore, this device is free from fiber-to-chip coupling and easy packaging for all-fiber quantum information systems.
2023, 60(12): 1211003
We simulate the measurements of an active bifocal terahertz imaging system to reproduce the ability of the system to detect the internal structure of foams having embedded defects. Angular spectrum theory and geometric optics tracing are used to calculate the incident and received electric fields of the system and the scattered light distribution of the measured object. The finite-element method is also used to calculate the scattering light distribution of the measured object for comparison with the geometric optics model. The simulations are consistent with the measurements at the central axis of the horizontal stripe defects.defect detection terahertz terahertz imaging
Chinese Optics Letters
2023, 21(6): 061102
太赫兹(THz) 波段的高灵敏探测器在诸多前沿领域中有着巨大的应用价值。超导量子电容探测器(QCD) 是一种在 THz 波段具备单光子探测能力的高灵敏直接探测器, 且可实现大规模阵列。对阵列而言, 可靠的读出技术是其性能发挥的基本保障。本研究利用零差读出技术进行了 QCD 信号读出与表征。微波同相正交(IQ) 混频器是零差读出电路的重要组成元件, 故对 IQ 混频器进行了详细表征与校准, 通过排除其不平衡性对探测器信号读出的影响, 提高了测量的可靠性。在此基础上, 对 QCD 的 THz 响应信号进行了测量, 结果显示 QCD 响应信号与理论预期结果高度一致。此外, 所构建的零差读出电路还可用于高灵敏超导微波动态电感探测器(MKID) 阵列等极低温(15 mK 以下) 探测器的信号读出, 为高灵敏 THz 探测器的开发奠定了良好的基础, 具有较高的应用价值。光电子学 零差读出 高灵敏太赫兹探测阵列 超导量子电容探测器 低温 单光子探测 optoelectronics homodyne readout high-sensitive THz detector array superconducting quantum capacitance detector low temperature single photon detection
2022, 59(5): 0500001
Integrated photonics provides a route to both miniaturization of quantum key distribution (QKD) devices and enhancing their performance. A key element for achieving discrete-variable QKD is a single-photon detector. It is highly desirable to integrate detectors onto a photonic chip to enable the realization of practical and scalable quantum networks. We realize a heterogeneously integrated, superconducting silicon-photonic chip. Harnessing the unique high-speed feature of our optical waveguide-integrated superconducting detector, we perform the first optimal Bell-state measurement (BSM) of time-bin encoded qubits generated from two independent lasers. The optimal BSM enables an increased key rate of measurement-device-independent QKD (MDI-QKD), which is immune to all attacks against the detection system and hence provides the basis for a QKD network with untrusted relays. Together with the time-multiplexed technique, we have enhanced the sifted key rate by almost one order of magnitude. With a 125-MHz clock rate, we obtain a secure key rate of 6.166 kbps over 24.0 dB loss, which is comparable to the state-of-the-art MDI-QKD experimental results with a GHz clock rate. Combined with integrated QKD transmitters, a scalable, chip-based, and cost-effective QKD network should become realizable in the near future.quantum key distribution hybrid photonics single-photon detector Bell-state measurement time-multiplexing
2021, 3(5): 055002
Amorphous materials are attractive candidates for fabricating the superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) due to their superior tolerance and scalability over crystalline niobium nitride. However, the reduced superconducting transition temperature degenerates both operating temperature and saturation efficiency. Herein, the SNSPD (6.5 nm thickness and 50 nm width) based on the amorphous film with a high optical absorption coefficient demonstrates close-to-unity intrinsic detection efficiency for 1550 nm photons from 75 mK to 2.2 K. Further, a high-performance array SNSPD with optimized 90 nm-width wires is also demonstrated. As-fabricated uniform 4-pixel SNSPD exhibits a saturation plateau for the photon counts at 2.2 K, which overcomes the limitation of operation at low temperature () for traditional amorphous SNSPDs. Coupled with superior intrinsic quantum efficiency, highly efficient photon counts, and low dark count ratio, this detector paves a way for achieving high efficiency and superior yield for large array systems.
2021, 9(3): 03000389
Laser communication using photons should consider not only the transmission environment’s effects, but also the performance of the single-photon detector used and the photon number distribution. Photon communication based on the superconducting nanowire single-photon detector (SNSPD) is a new technology that addresses the current sensitivity limitations at the level of single photons in deep space communication. The communication’s bit error rate (BER) is limited by dark noise in the space environment and the photon number distribution with a traditional single-pixel SNSPD, which is unable to resolve the photon number distribution. In this work, an enhanced photon communication method was proposed based on the photon number resolving function of four-pixel array SNSPDs. A simulated picture transmission was carried out, and the error rate in this counting mode can be reduced by 2 orders of magnitude when compared with classical optical communication. However, in the communication mode using photon-enhanced counting, the four-pixel response amplitude for counting was found to restrain the communication rate, and this counting mode is extremely dependent on the incident light intensity through experiments, which limits the sensitivity and speed of the SNSPD array’s performance advantage. Therefore, a BER theoretical calculation model for laser communication was presented using the Bayesian estimation algorithm in order to analyze the selection of counting methods for information acquisition under different light intensities and to make better use of the SNSPD array’s high sensitivity and speed and thus to obtain a lower BER. The counting method and theoretical model proposed in this work refer to array SNSPDs in the deep space field.
2020, 8(5): 05000637