Author Affiliations
Energy harvesting plays a crucial role in modern society. In the past years, solar energy, owing to its renewable, green, and infinite attributes, has attracted increasing attention across a broad range of applications from small-scale wearable electronics to large-scale energy powering. However, the utility of solar cells in providing a stable power supply for various electrical appliances in practical applications is restricted by weather conditions. To address this issue, researchers have made many efforts to integrate solar cells with other types of energy harvesters, thus developing hybrid energy harvesters (HEHs), which can harvest energy from the ambient environment via different working mechanisms. In this review, four categories of energy harvesters including solar cells, triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs), piezoelectric nanogenerators (PENGs), and thermoelectric generators (TEGs) are introduced. In addition, we systematically summarize the recent progress in solar cell-based hybrid energy harvesters (SCHEHs) with a focus on their structure designs and the corresponding applications. Three hybridization designs through unique combinations of TENG, PENG, and TEG with solar cells are elaborated in detail. Finally, the main challenges and perspectives for the future development of SCHEHs are discussed.
solar cell hybrid energy harvesters triboelectric nanogenerators piezoelectric nanogenerators thermoelectric generators 
Opto-Electronic Science
2023, 2(6): 230011
Author Affiliations
1 Laboratory of Micro-Nano Optics, College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Sichuan Normal University, Chengdu 610101, China
2 Physik-Department, Lehrstuhl für Funktionelle Materialien, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Straße 1, 85748, Garching, Germany
3 Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ), Technische Universität München, Lichtenbergstraße. 1, 85748, Garching, Germany
4 Tianjin Huahuixin Technology Group Co., Ltd, Zhongtian Avenue, Tianjin 300467, China
Optical logic gates play important roles in all-optical logic circuits, which lie at the heart of the next-generation optical computing technology. However, the intrinsic contradiction between compactness and robustness hinders the development in this field. Here, we propose a simple design principle that can possess multiple-input-output states according to the incident circular polarization and direction based on the metasurface doublet, which enables controlled-NOT logic gates in infrared region. Therefore, the directional asymmetric electromagnetic transmission can be achieved. As a proof of concept, a spin-dependent Janus metasurface is designed and experimentally verified that four distinct images corresponding to four input states can be captured in the far-field. In addition, since the design method is derived from geometric optics, it can be easily applied to other spectra. We believe that the proposed metasurface doublet may empower many potential applications in chiral imaging, chiroptical spectroscopy and optical computing.
metasurface polarization control asymmetric transmission logic gate 
Opto-Electronic Advances
2023, 6(7): 220073

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