The dynamics of water within a nanopool of a reverse micelle is heavily affected by the amphiphilic interface. In this work, the terahertz (THz) spectra of cyclohexane/Igepal/water nonionic reverse micelle mixture are measured by THz time-domain spectroscopy and analyzed with two Debye models and complex permittivity of background with volume ratios. Based on the fitted parameters of bulk and fast water, the molar concentration of all kinds of water molecules and hydration water molecule number per Igepal molecule are calculated. We find that slow hydration water has the highest proportion in water when the radius parameter , while bulk water becomes the main component when . The feature radius ratio of nonhydrated and hydrated water to total water nanopool is roughly obtained from 0.39 to 0.85 with increasing .reverse micelle water dynamics THz spectroscopy
Chinese Optics Letters
2024, 22(1): 013001
Plasmonic vortices confining orbital angular momentums to surface have aroused wide research interest in the last decade. Recent advances of near-field microscopes have enabled the study on the spatiotemporal dynamics of plasmonic vortices, providing a better understanding of optical orbital angular momentums in the evanescent wave regime. However, these works only focused on the objective characterization of plasmonic vortex and have not achieved subjectively tailoring of its spatiotemporal dynamics for specific applications. Herein, it is demonstrated that the plasmonic vortices with the same topological charge can be endowed with distinct spatiotemporal dynamics by simply changing the coupler design. Based on a near-field scanning terahertz microscopy, the surface plasmon fields are directly obtained with ultrahigh spatiotemporal resolution, experimentally exhibiting the generation and evolution divergences during the whole lifetime of plasmonic vortices. The proposed strategy is straightforward and universal, which can be readily applied into visible or infrared frequencies, facilitating the development of plasmonic vortex related researches and applications.plasmonic vortex surface plasmon spatiotemporal dynamics optical orbital angular momentum
2023, 6(4): 220133
Surface plasmons (SPs) are electromagnetic surface waves that propagate at the interface between a conductor and a dielectric. Due to their unique ability to concentrate light on two-dimensional platforms and produce very high local-field intensity, SPs have rapidly fueled a variety of fundamental advances and practical applications. In parallel, the development of metamaterials and metasurfaces has rapidly revolutionized the design concepts of traditional optical devices, fostering the exciting field of meta-optics. This review focuses on recent progress of meta-optics inspired SP devices, which are implemented by the careful design of subwavelength structures and the arrangement of their spatial distributions. Devices of general interest, including coupling devices, on-chip tailoring devices, and decoupling devices, as well as nascent SP applications empowered by sophisticated usage of meta-optics, are introduced and discussed.surface plasmons metamaterials metasurfaces plasmonics metadevices
2023, 2(1): R02
Perfect optical vortices (POVs), characterized as a ring radius independent of topological charge (TC), possess extensive application in particle manipulation and optical communication. At present, the complex and bulky optical device for generating POVs has been miniaturized by leveraging the metasurface, and either spin-dependent or spin-independent POV conversions have been further accomplished. Nevertheless, it is still challenging to generate superposed POVs for incidences with orthogonal circular polarization. Here, a spin-multiplexed all-dielectric metasurface method for generating superposed POVs in the terahertz frequency range is proposed and demonstrated. By using the multiple meta-atom comprised structure as the basic unit, the complex amplitude of two superposed POVs is modulated, decoupled, and subsequently encoded to left- and right-handed circular polarization incidences. Furthermore, two kinds of metasurfaces are fabricated and characterized to validate this controlling method. It is demonstrated that the measured intensity and phase distributions match well with the calculation of the Rayleigh–Sommerfeld diffraction integral, and the radius of superposed POVs is independent of TCs. This work provides promising opportunities for developing ultracompact terahertz functional devices applied to complex structured light generation and terahertz communication, and exploring sophisticated spin angular momentum and orbital angular momentum interactions like the photonic spin-Hall effect.
2023, 11(3): 431
Raman fiber lasers (RFLs) have broadband tunability due to cascaded stimulated Raman scattering, providing extensive degrees of freedom for spectral manipulation. However, the spectral diversity of RFLs depends mainly on the wavelength flexibility of the pump, which limits the application of RFLs. Here, a spectrally programmable RFL is developed based on two-dimensional spatial-to-spectral mapping of light in multimode fibers (MMFs). Using an intracavity wavefront shaping method combined with genetic algorithm optimization, we launch light with a selected wavelength(s) at MMF output into the active part of the laser for amplification. In contrast, the light of undesired wavelengths is blocked. We demonstrate spectral shaping of the high-order RFL, including a continuously tunable single wavelength and multiple wavelengths with a designed spectral shape. Due to the simultaneous control of different wavelength regions, each order of Raman Stokes light allows flexible and independent spectral manipulation. Our research exploits light manipulation in a fiber platform with multi-eigenmodes and nonlinear gain, mapping spatial control to the spectral domain and extending linear light control in MMFs to active light emission, which is of great significance for applications of RFLs in optical imaging, sensing, and spectroscopy.
2023, 11(1): 20
The recent era of fast optical manipulation and optical devices owe a lot to exciton-polaritons being lighter in mass, faster in speed and stronger in nonlinearity due to hybrid light-matter characteristics. The room temperature existence of polaritons in two dimensional materials opens up new avenues to the design and analysis of all optical devices and has gained the researchers attention. Here, spin-selective optical Stark effect is introduced to form a waveguide effect in uniform community of polaritons, and is used to realize polarization modulation of polaritons. The proposed device basically takes advantage of the spin-sensitive properties of optical Stark effect of polaritons inside the WS2 microcavity so as to guide different modes and modulate polarization of polaritons. It is shown that polaritonic wavepacket of different mode profiles can be generated by changing intensity of the optical Stark beam and the polarization of polaritons can be controlled and changed periodically along the formed waveguide by introduction birefringence that is sensitive to polarization degree of the optical Stark beam.The recent era of fast optical manipulation and optical devices owe a lot to exciton-polaritons being lighter in mass, faster in speed and stronger in nonlinearity due to hybrid light-matter characteristics. The room temperature existence of polaritons in two dimensional materials opens up new avenues to the design and analysis of all optical devices and has gained the researchers attention. Here, spin-selective optical Stark effect is introduced to form a waveguide effect in uniform community of polaritons, and is used to realize polarization modulation of polaritons. The proposed device basically takes advantage of the spin-sensitive properties of optical Stark effect of polaritons inside the WS2 microcavity so as to guide different modes and modulate polarization of polaritons. It is shown that polaritonic wavepacket of different mode profiles can be generated by changing intensity of the optical Stark beam and the polarization of polaritons can be controlled and changed periodically along the formed waveguide by introduction birefringence that is sensitive to polarization degree of the optical Stark beam.Stark beam polaritons modulator TMDs polarization degree
2022, 5(11): 200066
Recent moiré configurations provide a new platform for tunable and sensitive photonic responses, as their enhanced light–matter interactions originate from the relative displacement or rotation angle in a stacking bilayer or multilayer periodic array. However, previous findings are mostly focused on atomically thin condensed matter, with limitations on the fabrication of multilayer structures and the control of rotation angles. Structured microwave moiré configurations are still difficult to realize. Here, we design a novel moiré structure, which presents unprecedented capability in the manipulation of light–matter interactions. Based on the effective medium theory and -parameter retrieval process, the rotation matrix is introduced into the dispersion relation to analyze the underlying physical mechanism, where the permittivity tensor transforms from a diagonal matrix to a fully populated one, whereas the permeability tensor evolves from a unit matrix to a diagonal one and finally becomes fully filled, so that the electromagnetic responses change drastically as a result of stacking and rotation. Besides, the experiment and simulation results reveal hybridization of eigenmodes, drastic manipulation of surface states, and magic angle properties by controlling the mutual rotation angles between two isolated layers. Here, not only a more precisely controllable bilayer hyperbolic metasurface is introduced to moiré physics, the findings also open up a new avenue to realize flat bands at arbitrary frequencies, which shows great potential in active engineering of surface waves and designing multifunctional plasmonic devices.
2022, 10(9): 2056
Metasurface-empowered bound state in the continuum (BIC) provides a unique route for fascinating functional devices with infinitely high quality factors. This method is particularly attractive to the terahertz community because it may essentially solve the deficiencies in terahertz filters, sensors, lasers, and nonlinear sources. However, most BIC metasurfaces are limited to specified incident angles that seriously dim their application prospects. Here, we propose that a dual-period dielectric metagrating can support multiple families of BICs that originate from guided mode resonances in the dielectric grating and exhibit infinite quality factors at arbitrarily tilted incidence. This robustness was analyzed based on the Bloch theory and verified at tilted incident angles. We also demonstrate that inducing geometric asymmetry is an efficient way to manipulate the leakage and coupling of these BICs, which can mimic the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) effect in our dual-period metagrating. In this demonstration, a slow-light effect with a measured group delay of 117 ps was achieved. The incidence-insensitive BICs proposed here may greatly extend the application scenarios of the BIC effect. The high factor and outstanding slow-light effect in the metagrating show exciting prospects in realizing high-performance filters, sensors, and modulators for prompting terahertz applications.
2022, 10(3): 03000810
Metasurfaces have enabled the realization of several optical functionalities over an ultrathin platform, fostering the exciting field of flat optics. Traditional metasurfaces are achieved by arranging a layout of static meta-atoms to imprint a desired operation on the impinging wavefront, but their functionality cannot be altered. Reconfigurability and programmability of metasurfaces are the next important step to broaden their impact, adding customized on-demand functionality in which each meta-atom can be individually reprogrammed. We demonstrate a mechanical metasurface platform with controllable rotation at the meta-atom level, which can implement continuous Pancharatnam–Berry phase control of circularly polarized microwaves. As the proof-of-concept experiments, we demonstrate metalensing, focused vortex beam generation, and holographic imaging in the same metasurface template, exhibiting versatility and superior performance. Such dynamic control of electromagnetic waves using a single, low-cost metasurface paves an avenue towards practical applications, driving the field of reprogrammable intelligent metasurfaces for a variety of applications.reprogrammable metasurfaces Pancharatnam–Berry phase mechanical metasurfaces microwaves
2022, 4(1): 016002