Author Affiliations
1 Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Ultraintense Laser and Advanced Material Technology, Center for Advanced Material Diagnostic Technology, and College of Engineering Physics, Shenzhen Technology University, Shenzhen 518118, China
2 School of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100, China
With different interactions between material and femtosecond lasers, two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) waveguide couplers, whose separation distances are fabricated in z-cut lithium niobate crystal by femtosecond laser writing, are reported. Experimentally and numerically, it is shown from results that the guidance is only propagating along TM polarization due to the Type I modification and holds equal splitting ratios, which are the same as power splitters at 632.8 nm. The propagation losses of 2D and 3D waveguide couplers exhibit better transmission properties than those of the previously reported Type I Y-junction waveguide splitters.
femtosecond laser writing beam splitters lithium niobate 
Chinese Optics Letters
2023, 21(11): 112201

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