作者单位
摘要
1 福州大学 晋江微电子研究院, 福建 晋江 362200
2 香港城市大学 物理系, 中国 香港 999077
为了准确测量米级长度线型狭缝波导的准横电波(TE)和准横磁波(TM)的色散, 设计了一种马赫-曾德尔干涉仪(MZI)的色散测量光路。介绍了相位拟合法和平衡波长法的测量原理, 并结合测量光路进行测量。测量结果表明: 滤除偏振模式间的串扰噪声, 可进一步提高色散测量的准确度; 通过调整波导的狭缝尺寸, 可对其色散进行有效调控, 当狭缝厚度为0.1μm时, 波导在1 440~1 640 nm波长范围内具有接近零且平坦的色散。
集成光波导 马赫-曾德尔干涉仪 色散 integrated photonics waveguide, Mach-Zehnder inter 
光通信技术
2023, 47(6): 0066
Zejie Yu 1,3,4,*He Gao 1Yi Wang 2Yue Yu 2[ ... ]Daoxin Dai 1,3,4,5
Author Affiliations
Abstract
1 Centre for Optical and Electromagnetic Research, State Key Laboratory for Modern Optical Instrumentation, Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory for Sensing Technologies, International Research Center for Advanced Photonics, College of Optical Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
2 Department of Electronic Engineering, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong SAR, China
3 Jiaxing Key Laboratory of Photonic Sensing & Intelligent Imaging, Jiaxing 314000, China
4 Intelligent Optics & Photonics Research Center, Jiaxing Research Institute Zhejiang University, Jiaxing 314000, China
5 Ningbo Research Institute, Zhejiang University, Ningbo 315100, China
Photonic waveguides are the most fundamental element for photonic integrated circuits (PICs). Waveguide properties, such as propagation loss, modal areas, nonlinear coefficients, etc., directly determine the functionalities and performance of PICs. Recently, the emerging waveguides with bound states in the continuum (BICs) have opened new opportunities for PICs because of their special properties in resonance and radiation. Here, we review the recent progress of PICs composed of waveguides with BICs. First, fundamentals including background physics and design rules of a BIC-based waveguide will be introduced. Next, two types of BIC-based waveguide structures, including shallowly etched dielectric and hybrid waveguides, will be presented. Lastly, the challenges and opportunities of PICs with BICs will be discussed.
photonic waveguide bound states in the continuum integrated photonics 
Journal of Semiconductors
2023, 44(10): 101301
作者单位
摘要
1 重庆邮电大学 光电工程学院, 重庆 400065
2 电子科技大学 重庆微电子产业技术研究院, 重庆 401332
3 电子科技大学 电子科学与工程学院, 四川 成都 611731
铌酸锂(LiNbO3, LN)是一种广泛使用的介电材料, 由于其电光系数大, 透明范围大, 本征带宽宽, 因而在集成和非线性光学器件中极为重要。但绝缘体上铌酸锂薄膜(LNOI)的化学稳定性好, 刻蚀速率慢, 其微结构参数难以控制。针对以上问题, 该文开展了基于电感耦合等离子体刻蚀(ICP-RIE)的LNOI脊形微结构的制备工艺研究, 分析了腔室压强、气体总流量及刻蚀功率等参数对刻蚀速率、刻蚀倾角和表面粗糙度(RMS)的影响。研究表明, 在优化的工艺条件下, LNOI薄膜的刻蚀速率达到24.9 nm/min, 制备出刻蚀深度249 nm、刻蚀倾角76°、表面粗糙度(RMS)0.716 nm的LNOI脊形微结构。该文通过对刻蚀工艺与微观结构参数的研究, 建立了基于ICP的LNOI微结构刻蚀方法, 为控制LNOI脊形光波导和提升性能提供了工艺支撑。
绝缘体上铌酸锂薄膜(LNOI) 集成光子学 脊形结构 电感耦合等离子体刻蚀 微结构参数 lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) integrated photonics ridge structure inductively coupled plasma etching microstructural parameters 
压电与声光
2023, 45(2): 239
Author Affiliations
Abstract
1 Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Department of Electronic Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Advanced Optical Communication Systems and Networks, Shanghai, China
2 Nokia Bell Labs, Murray Hill, New Jersey, United States
3 Shanghai University, Key Laboratory of Specialty Fiber Optics and Optical Access Networks, Joint International Research Laboratory of Specialty Fiber Optics and Advanced Communication, Shanghai, China
4 Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Electronic Information and Electrical Engineering, John Hopcroft Center for Computer Science, Shanghai, China
Mode-division multiplexing (MDM) technology enables high-bandwidth data transmission using orthogonal waveguide modes to construct parallel data streams. However, few demonstrations have been realized for generating and supporting high-order modes, mainly due to the intrinsic large material group-velocity dispersion (GVD), which make it challenging to selectively couple different-order spatial modes. We show the feasibility of on-chip GVD engineering by introducing a gradient-index metamaterial structure, which enables a robust and fully scalable MDM process. We demonstrate a record-high-order MDM device that supports TE0–TE15 modes simultaneously. 40-GBaud 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation signals encoded on 16 mode channels contribute to a 2.162 Tbit / s net data rate, which is the highest data rate ever reported for an on-chip single-wavelength transmission. Our method can effectively expand the number of channels provided by MDM technology and promote the emerging research fields with great demand for parallelism, such as high-capacity optical interconnects, high-dimensional quantum communications, and large-scale neural networks.
integrated photonics metamaterial mode-division multiplexing subwavelength grating 
Advanced Photonics
2023, 5(5): 056008
Author Affiliations
Abstract
Nankai University, TEDA Institute of Applied Physics and School of Physics, MOE Key Laboratory of Weak-Light Nonlinear Photonics, Tianjin, China
Lithium niobate (LN) thin film has received much attention as an integrated photonic platform, due to its rich and great photoelectric characteristics, based on which various functional photonic devices, such as electro-optic modulators and nonlinear wavelength converters, have been demonstrated with impressive performance. As an important part of the integrated photonic system, the long-awaited laser and amplifier on the LN thin-film platform have made a series of breakthroughs and important progress recently. In this review paper, the research progress of lasers and amplifiers realized on lithium niobate thin film platforms is reviewed comprehensively. Specifically, the research progress on optically pumped lasers and amplifiers based on rare-earth ions doping of LN thin films is introduced. Some important parameters and existing limitations of the current development are discussed. In addition, the implementation scheme and research progress of electrically pumped lasers and amplifiers on LN thin-film platforms are summarized. The advantages and disadvantages of optically and electrically pumped LN thin film light sources are analyzed. Finally, the applications of LN thin film lasers and amplifiers and other on-chip functional devices are envisaged.
integrated photonics lithium niobate thin film microlasers amplifiers 
Advanced Photonics
2023, 5(3): 034002
Author Affiliations
Abstract
1 University of Washington, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Seattle, Washington, United States
2 University of Washington, Department of Physics, Seattle, Washington, United States
3 University of Washington, Institute for Nano-engineered Systems, Seattle, Washington, United States
The combination of photonic integrated circuits and free-space metaoptics has the ability to untie technological knots that require advanced light manipulation due to their conjoined ability to achieve strong light–matter interaction via wave-guiding light over a long distance and shape them via large space-bandwidth product. Rapid prototyping of such a compound system requires component interchangeability. This represents a functional challenge in terms of fabrication and alignment of high-performance optical systems. Here, we report a flexible and interchangeable interface between a photonic integrated circuit and the free space using an array of low-loss metaoptics and demonstrate multifunctional beam shaping at a wavelength of 780 nm. We show that robust and high-fidelity operation of the designed optical functions can be achieved without prior precise characterization of the free-space input nor stringent alignment between the photonic integrated chip and the metaoptics chip. A diffraction limited spot of ∼3 μm for a hyperboloid metalens of numerical aperture 0.15 is achieved despite an input Gaussian elliptical deformation of up to 35% and misalignments of the components of up to 20 μm. A holographic image with a peak signal-to-noise ratio of >10 dB is also reported.
integrated photonics metasurface integrated-photonic-to-free-space coupling holograms 
Advanced Photonics Nexus
2023, 2(3): 036012
Author Affiliations
Abstract
1 Medical University of Innsbruck, Institute of Biomedical Physics, Innsbruck, Austria
2 Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg, Institute of Photonic Technologies, Erlangen, Germany
3 Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen Graduate School in Advanced Optical Technologies, Erlangen, Germany
4 University of Oxford, Department of Engineering Science, Oxford, United Kingdom
Light plays a central role in many applications. The key to unlocking its versatility lies in shaping it into the most appropriate form for the task at hand. Specifically tailored refractive index modifications, directly manufactured inside glass using a short pulsed laser, enable an almost arbitrary control of the light flow. However, the stringent requirements for quantitative knowledge of these modifications, as well as for fabrication precision, have so far prevented the fabrication of light-efficient aperiodic photonic volume elements (APVEs). Here, we present a powerful approach to the design and manufacturing of light-efficient APVEs. We optimize application-specific three-dimensional arrangements of hundreds of thousands of microscopic voxels and manufacture them using femtosecond direct laser writing inside millimeter-sized glass volumes. We experimentally achieve unprecedented diffraction efficiencies up to 80%, which is enabled by precise voxel characterization and adaptive optics during fabrication. We demonstrate APVEs with various functionalities, including a spatial mode converter and combined intensity shaping and wavelength multiplexing. Our elements can be freely designed and are efficient, compact, and robust. Our approach is not limited to borosilicate glass but is potentially extendable to other substrates, including birefringent and nonlinear materials, giving a preview of even broader functionalities, including polarization modulation and dynamic elements.
integrated photonics holography mode conversion inverse design 
Advanced Photonics Nexus
2023, 2(3): 036006
Author Affiliations
Abstract
1 Sapienza Università di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica, Roma, Italy
2 Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Milano, Italy
Estimation of physical quantities is at the core of most scientific research, and the use of quantum devices promises to enhance its performances. In real scenarios, it is fundamental to consider that resources are limited, and Bayesian adaptive estimation represents a powerful approach to efficiently allocate, during the estimation process, all the available resources. However, this framework relies on the precise knowledge of the system model, retrieved with a fine calibration, with results that are often computationally and experimentally demanding. We introduce a model-free and deep-learning-based approach to efficiently implement realistic Bayesian quantum metrology tasks accomplishing all the relevant challenges, without relying on any a priori knowledge of the system. To overcome this need, a neural network is trained directly on experimental data to learn the multiparameter Bayesian update. Then the system is set at its optimal working point through feedback provided by a reinforcement learning algorithm trained to reconstruct and enhance experiment heuristics of the investigated quantum sensor. Notably, we prove experimentally the achievement of higher estimation performances than standard methods, demonstrating the strength of the combination of these two black-box algorithms on an integrated photonic circuit. Our work represents an important step toward fully artificial intelligence-based quantum metrology.
quantum sensing integrated photonics machine learning for metrology 
Advanced Photonics
2023, 5(1): 016005
Author Affiliations
Abstract
1 Sapienza Università di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica, Roma, Italy
2 Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milano, Italy
3 Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Milano, Italy
Multimode optical interferometers represent the most viable platforms for the successful implementation of several quantum information schemes that take advantage of optical processing. Examples range from quantum communication and sensing, to computation, including optical neural networks, optical reservoir computing, or simulation of complex physical systems. The realization of such routines requires high levels of control and tunability of the parameters that define the operations carried out by the device. This requirement becomes particularly crucial in light of recent technological improvements in integrated photonic technologies, which enable the implementation of progressively larger circuits embedding a considerable amount of tunable parameters. We formulate efficient procedures for the characterization of optical circuits in the presence of imperfections that typically occur in physical experiments, such as unbalanced losses and phase instabilities in the input and output collection stages. The algorithm aims at reconstructing the transfer matrix that represents the optical interferometer without making any strong assumptions about its internal structure and encoding. We show the viability of this approach in an experimentally relevant scenario, defined by a tunable integrated photonic circuit, and we demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of our method. Our findings can find application in a wide range of optical setups, based on both bulk and integrated configurations.
integrated photonics device characterization quantum networks 
Advanced Photonics Nexus
2023, 2(1): 016007
Author Affiliations
Abstract
1 Key Laboratory of Light-Field Manipulation and Information Acquisition, Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, and Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Optical Information Technology, School of Science and Technology, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710129, China
2 Institute of Fundamental and Frontier Sciences, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054, China
We propose a chip-integratable cylindrical vector (CV) beam generator by integrating six plasmonic split ring resonators (SRRs) on a planar photonic crystal (PPC) cavity. The employed PPC cavity is formed by cutting six adjacent air holes in the PPC center, which could generate a CV beam with azimuthally symmetric polarizations. By further integrating six SRRs on the structure defects of the PPC cavity, the polarizations of the CV beam could be tailored by controlling the opening angles of the SRRs, e.g., from azimuthal to radial symmetry. The mechanism is governed by the coupling between the resonance modes in SRRs and PPC cavity, which modifies the far-field radiation of the resonance mode of the PPC cavity with the SRR as the nano-antenna. The integration of SRRs also increases the coupling of the generated CV beam with the free-space optics, such as an objective lens, promising its further applications in optical communication, optical tweezer, imaging, etc.
vector beams photonic crystal plasmonics integrated photonics 
Chinese Optics Letters
2023, 21(3): 033601

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