2023, 21(3) Column
Atmospheric, Oceanic, Space, and Environmental Optics Diffraction, Gratings, and Holography Fiber Optics and Optical Communications Imaging Systems and Image Processing Instrumentation, Measurement, and Optical Sensing Integrated Optics Lasers, Optical Amplifiers, and Laser Optics Nonlinear Optics Optoelectronics Quantum Optics and Quantum Information Spectroscopy Nanophotonics, Metamaterials, and Plasmonics
Chinese Optics Letters 第21卷 第3期
Accurate measurement of aerosol optical properties using the multilongitudinal mode high-spectral-resolution lidar with self-tuning Mach–Zehnder interferometer
The multilongitudinal mode (MLM) high-spectral-resolution lidar (HSRL) based on the Mach–Zehnder interferometer (MZI) is constructed in Xi’an for accurate measurements of aerosol optical properties. The critical requirement of the optimal match between the free spectral range of MZI and the longitudinal mode interval of the MLM laser is influenced by the laboratory temperature, pressure, and vibration. To realize the optimal separation of aerosol Mie scattering signals and molecular Rayleigh scattering signals excited by the MLM laser, a self-tuning technique to dynamically adjust the optical path difference (OPD) of the MZI is proposed, which utilizes the maximum ratio between the received power of the Mie channel and Rayleigh channel as the criterion of the OPD displacement. The preliminary experiments show the feasibility of the MLM-HSRL with self-tuning MZI and the stable performance in the separation of aerosol Mie scattering signals and molecular Rayleigh scattering signals.high-spectral-resolution lidar aerosol optical properties multilongitudinal mode laser self-tuning Mach–Zehnder interferometer
The infrared imaging windows of the hyper/supersonic optical dome are encountering severe aero-optical effects (AOEs), so a flow control device, the ramp vortex generator array (RVGA) is proposed based on the ramp vortex generator to inhibit the supersonic mixing layers’ AOE, which is done by the nanotracer-based planar laser scattering technique and ray-tracing method. The experiments prove that under different pressure conditions, RVGA can reduce the mean and standard deviation of the root mean square of the optical path difference (aero-optical effects supersonic mixing layer RVGA OPDrms flow control
) and reduce the supersonic mixing layers’ thickness and mixture a great deal. The AOE of the pressure-matched mixing layer is the weakest. Higher RVGA results in better optical performance. RVGA has the potential to be applied to supersonic film cooling to reduce aero-optical aberrations.
The converging lens is one of the key components in high-resolution terahertz imaging. In this Letter, a binary diffractive lens is proposed for the scanning imaging system working at 278.6 GHz, in which a convergent beam with a waist diameter of 0.65 mm is generated, and 1 mm lateral imaging resolution is realized. This low-cost terahertz lens, constituted by concentric rings with different radii, is optimized by stimulated annealing algorithm and fabricated by three-dimensional printing. Compared with the conventional transmissive convex lens, higher resolution and enhanced imaging quality are achieved via smaller focal spot of the illumination beam. This type of lens would promote terahertz imaging closer to practical applications such as nondestructive testing and other scenarios.terahertz imaging binary diffractive lens phase modulation three-dimensional printing
Self-healing in optics generally refers to the ability to reconstruct itself and restore the original state after encountering obstacles in the propagation of the light field. In this research, we observe the processes of the wave fields from perfect to defect in front of the focal plane of the 4f system, finally returning to an intact situation after the plane. According to simulations and experimental results, there is a minimum self-healing distance for the moiré lattice field that positively associates with the radius of the defect (obstacle) in the nondiffracting transmission range. Furthermore, it is observed that the defect self-healing is a process of “repairing the center and then repairing the edges.” These findings can be applied in areas such as optical imaging, capture, and information processing.moiré lattice nondiffraction self-healing wave field
We propose an alternative approach to compensation of intermodal interactions in few-mode optical fibers by means of digital backpropagation. Instead of solving the inverse generalized multimode nonlinear Schrödinger equation, we accomplish backpropagation of the multimode signals with help of their near-field intensity distributions captured by a camera. We demonstrate that this task can successfully be handled by a deep neural network and provide a proof of concept by training an autoencoder for backpropagation of six linearly polarized (LP) modes of a step-index fiber.optical fibers multimode fibers few-mode fibers digital signal processing space division multiplexing mode division multiplexing mode decomposition
In this paper, an artificial-intelligence-based fiber communication receiver model is put forward. With the multi-head attention mechanism it contains, this model can extract crucial patterns and map the transmitted signals into the bit stream. Once appropriately trained, it can obtain the ability to restore the information from the signals whose transmission distances range from 0 to 100 km, signal-to-noise ratios range from 0 to 20 dB, modulation formats range from OOK to PAM4, and symbol rates range from 10 to 40 GBaud. The validity of the model is numerically demonstrated via MATLAB and Pytorch scenarios and compared with traditional communication receivers.fiber receiver model neural networks multi-head attention mechanism
This paper utilizes uniquely decodable codes (UDCs) in an M-to-1 free-space optical (FSO) system. Benefiting from UDCs’ nonorthogonal nature, the sum throughput is improved. We first prove that the uniquely decodable property still holds, even in optical fading channels. It is further discovered that the receiver can extract each source’s data from superimposed symbols with only one processing unit. According to theoretical analysis and simulation results, the throughput gain is up to the normalized UDC’s sum rate in high signal-to-noise ratio cases. An equivalent desktop experiment is also implemented to show the feasibility of the UDC-FSO structure.free-space optics throughput enhancement uniquely decodable code
For speckle-correlation-based scattering imaging, an iris is generally used next to the diffuser to magnify the speckle size and enhance the speckle contrast, which limits the light flux and makes the setup cooperative. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a non-iris speckle-correlation imaging method associated with an image resizing process. The experimental results demonstrate that, by estimating an appropriate resizing factor, our method can achieve high-fidelity noncooperative speckle-correlation imaging by digital resizing of the raw captions or on-chip pixel binning without iris. The method opens a new door for noncooperative high-frame-rate speckle-correlation imaging and benefits scattering imaging for dynamic objects hidden behind opaque barriers.speckle correlation image resizing pixel binning
We propose a new method for the development of multi-beam systems for the spatial alignment and stability of beams based on the error separation technique. This method avoids alignment errors caused by coupling effect of piezoelectric devices, inaccurate correction calculations, and detection mode of the angular deviation. According to the results by external detectors, the error value of spatial alignment and the root mean square (RMS) of deviations under control during 1 h can be equivalent to approximately 0.87 and 1.06 nm at the sample plane under an oil immersion lens (focal length f
). The RMS of deviations is less than one-third of those currently reported for multi-beam systems; therefore, higher alignment and stability accuracy can be achieved with our proposed method.
Although previously reported terahertz absorbers can achieve high-sensitivity refractive index sensing, the resonant peak is too broad, which leads to a low figure of merit (FOM). Transmissive sensors based on bound states in the continuum (BIC) can achieve high FOM, but they have some limitations in high sensitivity. Herein, we propose a periodic triple parallel metal bars structure to obtain high quality, a strong field, and multiple hot spots by the Friedrich–Wintgen BIC. Numerical results show the sensitivity and FOM can reach 1877 GHz/RIU and 665, respectively. Compared to the previously reported transmissive sensors based on BIC, the sensitivity has been greatly improved.Fano resonance bound states in the continuum terahertz high-sensitivity sensing
More durable (with high impact force), lighter, and more compact flexible azo dye micropolarizers are attractive candidates for low-cost, simple polarization imaging systems. The liquid crystal polymer (LCP), as an emerging material developed by photo-alignment technology, is a potential material for organizing the long-range ordered structure of azo dyes. However, little research has been done on LCP aligned azo dyes. This paper points out and solves a key problem that restricts the fabrication of high-precision arrays in guest (azo dye)-host (LCP) systems: the doping of dyes leads to disorder of the LCP during curing. After solving the problem, the relationship between the thickness of the LCP and the extinction ratio of the polarizing film was investigated, which effectively improved the extinction ratio. Alignment of azo dye molecules in the range of 2 µm (0°–180°) and arrays of micropolarizers (0°, 45°, 90°,micropolarizer polarimetric imaging polarimetry azo dye polarization-sensitive devices
) with 8 µm × 8 µm pixel pitch was achieved by laser direct writing technology. The bending cycle test demonstrates the mechanical stability of the ultrathin flexible polarizer. The flexible patterned polarizer with robust chemical and mechanical stabilities provides a flexible way to capture the polarization of the light and highly integrated advanced flexible optoelectronic devices.
Continuous-wave three-wavelength operation of a diode-pumped Tm:YVO4 laser on the 3H4→3H5 and 3F4→3H6 transitions
A diode-pumped continuous-waveTm:YVO4 crystal three-wavelength 3H4 → 3H5 transition
laser operating on the and transitions was demonstrated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. An a-cut crystal with 1.5% (atomic fraction) ion concentration was used to characterize the laser behavior. A common commercial laser diode with a central wavelength of 790 nm and a bandwidth of 3.2 nm was utilized as a pump source. With an output coupler for the and transitions, simultaneous three-wavelength laser operation was achieved. The laser emissions at 2292 and 2363 nm in -polarization and at 2108 nm in -polarization were realized. With an incident pump power of 22 W, the total output power of 1.17 W at 2292, 2363, and 2108 nm was obtained. The output power at 2292 and 2363 nm was measured to be 750 mW, and the output power at 2108 nm was measured to be 420 mW.
We have observed various polarization domains and a giant self-mode-locked pulse in a 130 m long erbium-doped fiber laser without any mode-locking devices. By adjusting the intracavity polarization controller, we investigated the evolution process of the polarization domain with the varying cavity birefringence. When the birefringence was close to zero, the polarization domains split into multidomains, and finally a giant self-mode-locked pulse formed for the first time. We analyzed that the generation of the self-mode-locked pulse was related to the multiple subdomains ascribed to the strong coherent cross coupling between the orthogonal polarization light components in the long fiber cavity.fiber lasers polarization domains self-mode-locked pulse nonlinear optics
In an acousto-optic modulator, the electrode shape plays an important role in performance, since it affects the distribution of the acoustic field. The acousto-optic modulator based on the conventional rectangular electrode has the problems of low energy efficiency and small modulation bandwidth due to an imperfect acoustic field. In this paper, a new serrated periodic electrode has been proposed for using acousto-optic modulator transducers. The proposed electrode has the following advantages. By using serrated periodic electrodes to suppress the sidelobes, the collimation of the acoustic field in the direction perpendicular to the light incidence is improved. This makes the acousto-optic modulator have a stable diffraction efficiency fluctuation and high energy efficiency. In addition, the electrode has a large divergence angle in the direction of light incidence, so a large bandwidth can be obtained. The simulations and experiments demonstrate that the serrated periodic electrode has an increased bandwidth and high energy efficiency.acousto-optic modulator serrated periodic electrode large bandwidth low power consumption
We demonstrate an ultrastable miniaturized transportable laser system at 1550 nm by locking it to an optical fiber delay line (FDL). To achieve optimized long-term frequency stability, the FDL was placed into a vacuum chamber with a five-layer thermal shield, and a delicate two-stage active temperature stabilization, an optical power stabilization, and an RF power stabilization were applied in the system. A fractional frequency stability of better thanfiber delay line frequency stability ultrastable laser
at 1 s averaging time and at 1000 s averaging time was achieved, which is the best long-term frequency stability of an all-fiber-based ultrastable laser observed to date.
Beam homogenization structure for a laser illuminator design based on diode laser beam combining technology
With the rapid development of laser technology, laser as the light source of night vision illuminating can realize long-distance and clear imaging, which has been widely used in laser active illuminating field. A high-power diode laser with a wavelength of 808 nm was designed as the laser active illuminating source, and the output power of no less than 100 W was obtained by spatial beam multiplexing, polarization multiplexing, and high efficiency fiber coupling techniques. In view of the beam homogenization of illuminating source, a novel beam homogenization system based on waveguide is proposed in this work. A square spot with a horizontal divergence angle of 40°, a vertical divergence angle of 10°, and an illuminating power ratio of 4:1 was obtained by a collimating lens. Comparing with the traditional circular illuminating beam, the square illuminating beam can match the illuminating angle of CCD camera better, and the energy utilization rate is higher. In addition, by optimizing the structure of waveguide and collimating lens, the illuminating angle can be changed to meet the illuminating requirements under different conditions theoretically.laser illumination spatial multiplexing polarization multiplexing beam homogenization waveguide
A Q-switched Nd:YAG laser has been actively mode-locked at a subharmonic frequency for the first time, to the authors’ knowledge. The laser operation mode is provided by a combination of a traveling wave acousto-optic modulator and a spherical cavity mirror. The dynamics of laser generation is investigated. Pulses with a duration of 70 ps and a peak power of about 10 MW were obtained. Also presented are new results on obtaining high-power (Nd:YAG laser diode pumping Q switching mode locking parametric light generators
kW) picosecond tunable radiation in the nm region based on frequency conversion of a superluminescent parametric generator pumped by such a laser.
We investigate the mechanisms to realize the Raman laser switching in a silica rod microresonator with mode-interaction-assisted excitation. The laser switching can be triggered between two whispering gallery modes (WGMs) with either the same or distinct mode families, depending on the pumping conditions. The experimental observations are in excellent agreement with a theoretical analysis based on coupled-mode equations with intermodal interaction terms involved. Additionally, we also demonstrate switching of a single-mode Raman laser and a wideband spectral tuning range up tononlinear optics devices Raman laser microresonators
by selective excitation of distinct mode sequences. The results contribute to the understanding of Raman lasing formation dynamics via interaction with transverse mode sequences and may extend the microcavity-based Raman microlasers to potential areas in switchable light sources, optical memories, and high sensitivity sensors.
In this article, we use a convolutional autoencoder neural network to reduce data dimensioning and rebuild soliton dynamics in a passively mode-locked fiber laser. Based on the particle characteristic in double solitons and triple solitons interactions, we found that there is a strict correspondence between the number of minimum compression parameters and the number of independent parameters of soliton interaction. This shows that our network effectively coarsens the high-dimensional data in nonlinear systems. Our work not only introduces new prospects for the laser self-optimization algorithm, but also brings new insights into the modeling of nonlinear systems and description of soliton interactions.fiber lasers optical solitons convolutional autoencoder neural network
Highly efficient transient stimulated Raman scattering on secondary vibrational mode of BaWO4 crystal due to its constructive interference with self-phase modulation
An exceptionally high stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) conversion efficiency to the first Stokes component associated with the secondary (low-frequency and low intensity) vibrational modestimulated Raman scattering secondary vibrational mode self-phase modulation ultrashort laser pulses transient phenomena
( ) was observed in a crystal in a highly transient regime of interaction. The effect takes place in the range of pump pulse energy from to with maximum energy conversion efficiency up to 35% at 0.2 µJ. The nature of the observed effects is explained by interference of SRS and self-phase modulation, where the latter is related to a noninstantaneous orientational Kerr nonlinearity in the crystal.
In this paper, high-uniformityavalanche photodiode arrays silicon multiple epitaxy technology dark current
silicon avalanche photodiode (APD) arrays are reported. Silicon multiple epitaxy technology was used, and the high performance APD arrays based on double-layer epiwafers are achieved for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. A high-uniformity breakdown voltage with a fluctuation of smaller than 3.5 V is obtained for the fabricated APD arrays. The dark currents are below 90 pA for all 128 pixels at unity gain voltage. The pixels in the APD arrays show a gain factor of larger than 300 and a peak responsivity of M = 1 at 850 nm (corresponding to maximum external quantum efficiency of 81%) at room temperature. Quick optical pulse response time was measured, and a corresponding cutoff frequency up to 100 MHz was obtained.
In this work, high-stability 4H-SiC avalanche photodiodes (APDs) for ultraviolet (UV) detection at high temperatures are fabricated and investigated. With the temperature increasing from room temperature to 150°C, a very small temperature coefficient of 7.4 mV/°C is achieved for the avalanche breakdown voltage of devices. For the first time, the stability of 4H-SiC APDs is verified based on an accelerated aging test with harsh stress conditions. Three different stress conditions are selected with the temperatures and reverse currents of 175°C/100 µA, 200°C/100 µA, and 200°C/500 µA, respectively. The results show that our 4H-SiC APD exhibits robust high-temperature performance and can even endure more than 120 hours at the harsh aging condition of 200°C/500 µA, which indicates that 4H-SiC APDs are very stable and reliable for applications at high temperatures.silicon carbide photodiode UV detector high temperature avalanche Geiger mode
We report an all-fiber telecom-band energy-time entangled biphoton source with all physical elements integrated into a compact cabinet. At a pump power of 800 µW, the photon pairs generation rate reaches 6.9 MHz with the coincidence-to-accidental ratio (CAR) better than 1150. The long-term stability of the biphoton source is characterized by measuring the Hong–Ou–Mandel interference visibility and CAR within a continuous operation period of more than 10 h. Benefiting from the advantages of compact size, light weight, and high stability, this device provides a convenient resource for various field turnkey quantum communication and metrology applications.energy–time entanglement all-fiber biphoton source Hong–Ou–Mandel interference
In the field of absorption spectroscopy, the multipass cell (MPC) is one of the key elements. It has the advantages of simple structure, easy adjustment, and high spectral coverage, which is an effective way to improve the detection sensitivity of gas sensing systems such as tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy. This invited paper summarizes the design theory and the research results of some mainstream types of MPCs based on two mirrors and more than two mirrors in recent years, and briefly introduces the application of some processed products. The design theory of modified ABCD matrix and vector reflection principle are explained in detail. Finally, trends in its development are predicted.multipass cell tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy gas sensing optical path length
Cylindrical vector beam generator on photonic crystal cavity integrated with metal split ring nanoresonators
We propose a chip-integratable cylindrical vector (CV) beam generator by integrating six plasmonic split ring resonators (SRRs) on a planar photonic crystal (PPC) cavity. The employed PPC cavity is formed by cutting six adjacent air holes in the PPC center, which could generate a CV beam with azimuthally symmetric polarizations. By further integrating six SRRs on the structure defects of the PPC cavity, the polarizations of the CV beam could be tailored by controlling the opening angles of the SRRs, e.g., from azimuthal to radial symmetry. The mechanism is governed by the coupling between the resonance modes in SRRs and PPC cavity, which modifies the far-field radiation of the resonance mode of the PPC cavity with the SRR as the nano-antenna. The integration of SRRs also increases the coupling of the generated CV beam with the free-space optics, such as an objective lens, promising its further applications in optical communication, optical tweezer, imaging, etc.vector beams photonic crystal plasmonics integrated photonics
An ultrathin angle-insensitive color filter enabling high color saturation and a wide color gamut is proposed by relying on a magnesium hydride-hydrogenated amorphous silicon (MgH2-a-Si:H) lossy dielectric layer. Based on effective medium theory, the MgH2-a-Si:H layer with an ultrathin thickness can be equivalent to a quasi-homogeneous dielectric layer with an effective complex refractive index, which can be tuned by altering the thickness of MgH2 to obtain the targeted value of the imaginary part, corresponding to the realization of high color saturation. It is verified that the proposed color filter offers highly enhanced color saturation in conjunction with a wide color gamut by introducing a few-nanometer thick MgH2 layer. As the MgH2-a-Si:H layer retains the advantages of high refractive index and tiny thickness, the proposed color filter exhibits large angular tolerance up tocolor filter effective medium theory lossy dielectric layer color saturation angle insensitivity
. In addition, MgH2 with an unstable property can interconvert with Mg under a dehydrogenation/hydrogenation reaction, which empowers the proposed color filter with dynamically tunable output color. The proposed scheme shows great promise in color printing and ultracompact display devices with high color saturation, wide gamut, large angular tolerance, and dynamic tunability.
Azimuthal vector beam illuminating plasmonic tips circular cluster for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy
Noble metallic nanostructures with strong electric near-field enhancement can significantly improve nanoscale light–matter interactions and are critical for high-sensitivity surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Here, we use an azimuthal vector beam (AVB) to illuminate the plasmonic tips circular cluster (PTCC) array to enhance the electric near-field intensity of the PTCC array, and then use it to improve SERS sensitivity. The PTCC array was prepared based on the self-assembled and inductive coupled plasmon (ICP) etching methods. The calculation results show that, compared with the linearly polarized beam (LPB) and radial vector beam excitations, the AVB excitation can obtain stronger electric near-field enhancement due to the strong resonant responses formed in the nanogap between adjacent plasmonic tips. Subsequently, our experimental results proved that AVB excitation increased SERS sensitivity to 10-13 mol/L, which is two orders of magnitude higher than that of LPB excitation. Meanwhile, the PTCC array had excellent uniformity with the Raman enhancement factor calculated to besurface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy plasmonic tips circular cluster array azimuthal vector beam surface plasmon polaritons
. This kind of vector light field enhancing Raman spectroscopy may be applied in the field of sensing technologies, such as the trace amount detection.
动态信息 丨 2023-09-05COL 封面故事 (Vol. 21, Iss. 6): 光子准晶光纤的“前世今生”
动态信息 丨 2023-07-14COL 封面故事(Vol. 21, Iss. 5): 深度学习下的全偏振高光谱计算成像
动态信息 丨 2023-07-14COL Highlight (Vol. 21, Iss. 6): 首次！钽酸锂薄膜微盘腔中最短UV光的产生
动态信息 丨 2023-07-14COL Highlight (Vol. 21, Iss. 5): 高重频飞秒激光，制备表面周期性结构
动态信息 丨 2023-07-14COL Highlight (Vol. 21, Iss. 5): 基于飞秒激光脉冲相位依赖三次谐波的产生机理