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High Power Laser Science and Engineering 第11卷 第6期

Author Affiliations
Abstract
Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden
Exploiting high-energy electron beams colliding into high-intensity laser pulses brings an opportunity to reach high values of the dimensionless rest-frame acceleration $\chi$ and thereby invoke processes described by strong-field quantum electrodynamics (SFQED). Measuring deviations from the results of Furry-picture perturbation theory in SFQED at high $\chi$ can be valuable for testing existing predictions, as well as for guiding further theoretical developments. Nevertheless, such experimental measurements are challenging due to the probabilistic nature of the interaction processes, dominating signals of low- $\chi$ interactions and limited capabilities to control and measure the alignment and synchronization in such collision experiments. Here we elaborate a methodology of using approximate Bayesian computations for drawing statistical inferences based on the results of many repeated experiments despite partially unknown collision parameters that vary between experiments. As a proof-of-principle, we consider the problem of inferring the effective mass change due to coupling with the strong-field environment.
Bayesian inference strong-field quantum electrodynamics laser accelerator 
High Power Laser Science and Engineering
2023, 11(6): 06000e67
Author Affiliations
Abstract
1 Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden – Rossendorf, Dresden, Germany
2 Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany
3 OncoRay – National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Dresden, Germany
4 Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Garching/München, Germany
5 Currently at: Universitätsklinikum Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
Laser–plasma accelerated (LPA) proton bunches are now applied for research fields ranging from ultra-high-dose-rate radiobiology to material science. Yet, the capabilities to characterize the spectrally and angularly broad LPA bunches lag behind the rapidly evolving applications. The OCTOPOD translates the angularly resolved spectral characterization of LPA proton bunches into the spatially resolved detection of the volumetric dose distribution deposited in a liquid scintillator. Up to 24 multi-pinhole arrays record projections of the scintillation light distribution and allow for tomographic reconstruction of the volumetric dose deposition pattern, from which proton spectra may be retrieved. Applying the OCTOPOD at a cyclotron, we show the reliable retrieval of various spatial dose deposition patterns and detector sensitivity over a broad dose range. Moreover, the OCTOPOD was installed at an LPA proton source, providing real-time data on proton acceleration performance and attesting the system optimal performance in the harsh laser–plasma environment.
laser–plasma acceleration of protons proton detector tomographic reconstruction 
High Power Laser Science and Engineering
2023, 11(6): 06000e68
Chuan Yang 1,2,*Tao Liu 3Kai Hu 1Ye Zhu 1[ ... ]Weiqing Zhang 1,4,*
Author Affiliations
Abstract
1 Institute of Advanced Science Facilities, Shenzhen, China
2 College of Science, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, China
3 Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China
4 State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian, China
The development of high-brightness X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs), such as hard X-ray self-seeding free electron lasers and XFEL oscillators (XFELOs), brings a severe challenge to the crystal monochromator due to a strong non-uniform thermal load. The distortion caused by spatial temperature gradients can severely affect the optical performance of crystals. Therefore, this paper presents a model to estimate the performance of non-uniform thermally distorted crystals. The model not only takes into account thermal strain, slope error and incident angle deviation, but also considers temperature-dependent factors such as the Debye–Waller factor and electric susceptibility. Our investigation indicates that the Debye–Waller factor reduces the height and bandwidth of rocking curves, and the impact of the electric susceptibility is tiny. The proposed model can describe the distortion of the reflectivity and transmissivity curves of non-uniform thermally loaded crystals and can be applied in the design of crystal monochromators, crystal splitters, crystal compressors and XFELOs.
crystal monochromator free electron laser thermal load X-ray diffraction 
High Power Laser Science and Engineering
2023, 11(6): 06000e69
Jianfeng Yue 1,2Yulei Wang 1,2,*Mengyu Jia 1,2Kai Li 1,2[ ... ]Zhiwei Lü 1,2
Author Affiliations
Abstract
1 Center for Advanced Laser Technology, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin, China
2 Hebei Key Laboratory of Advanced Laser Technology and Equipment, Tianjin, China
This work demonstrates the generation of short pulse duration and high-beam-quality laser pulses using transient stimulated Brillouin scattering at a high repetition rate. Thermal effects and optical breakdown are identified as the main factors that restrict energy reflectivity and beam quality under high repetition rates and transient situations. Through experimental analysis, the interaction length and focal point size are determined to be the key parameters in reducing the thermal effect by reducing the absorption of the laser pulse by the medium. The obtained results show that pulses with a duration of 175 ps and beam quality M2 of around 1.2 can be achieved with a maximum energy reflectivity of over 40% under an interaction length of 50 mm. Furthermore, at an interaction length of 90 mm, a pulse output with a minimum duration of 115 ps (0.5τQ) is achieved.
high beam quality high energy nonlinear optics stimulated Brillouin scattering 
High Power Laser Science and Engineering
2023, 11(6): 06000e70
Author Affiliations
Abstract
1 Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai, China
2 Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden – Rossendorf, Dresden, Germany
3 State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China
4 Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany
Polarimetry is a highly sensitive method to quantify changes of the polarization state of light when passing through matter and is therefore widely applied in material science. The progress of synchrotron and X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) sources has led to significant developments of X-ray polarizers, opening perspectives for new applications of polarimetry to study source and beamline parameters as well as sample characteristics. X-ray polarimetry has shown to date a polarization purity of less than $1.4\times {10}^{-11}$ , enabling the detection of very small signals from ultrafast phenomena. A prominent application is the detection of vacuum birefringence. Vacuum birefringence is predicted in quantum electrodynamics and is expected to be probed by combining an XFEL with a petawatt-class optical laser. We review how source and optical elements affect X-ray polarimeters in general and which qualities are required for the detection of vacuum birefringence.
birefringence polarimetry polarizer quantum electrodynamics X-rays 
High Power Laser Science and Engineering
2023, 11(6): 06000e71
Author Affiliations
Abstract
1 Hangzhou Institute for Advanced Study, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hangzhou, China
2 Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China
3 MQ Photonics Research Centre, School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia
4 Center for Advanced Laser Technology, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin, China
5 State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan, China
A continuous-wave (CW) single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) Raman laser at 1240 nm with power of up to 20.6 W was demonstrated in a free-running diamond Raman oscillator without any axial-mode selection elements. The SLM operation was achieved due to the spatial-hole-burning free nature of Raman gain and was maintained at the highest available pump power by suppressing the parasitic stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS). A folded-cavity design was employed for reducing the perturbing effect of resonances at the pump frequency. At a pump power of 69 W, the maximum Stokes output reached 20.6 W, corresponding to a 30% optical-to-optical conversion efficiency from 1064 to 1240 nm. The result shows that parasitic SBS is the main physical process disturbing the SLM operation of Raman oscillator at higher power. In addition, for the first time, the spectral linewidth of a CW SLM diamond Raman laser was resolved using the long-delayed self-heterodyne interferometric method, which is 105 kHz at 20 W.
delay self-heterodyning diamond Raman laser linewidth single-longitudinal mode stimulated Brillouin scattering 
High Power Laser Science and Engineering
2023, 11(6): 06000e72
Bo Ren 1Can Li 1,*Tao Wang 1Kun Guo 1[ ... ]Pu Zhou 1,*
Author Affiliations
Abstract
1 College of Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, China
2 Nanhu Laser Laboratory, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, China
3 Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of High Energy Laser Technology, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, China
A high-power all polarization-maintaining (PM) chirped pulse amplification (CPA) system operating in the 2.0 μm range is experimentally demonstrated. Large mode area (LMA) thulium-doped fiber (TDF) with a core/cladding diameter of 25/400 μm is employed to construct the main amplifier. Through dedicated coiling and cooling of the LMA-TDF to manage the loss of the higher order mode and thermal effect, a maximum average power of 314 W with a slope efficiency of 52% and polarization extinction ratio of 20 dB is realized. The pulse duration is compressed to 283 fs with a grating pair, corresponding to a calculated peak power of 10.8 MW, considering the compression efficiency of 88% and the estimated Strehl ratio of 89%. Moreover, through characterizing the noise properties of the laser, an integrated relative intensity noise of 0.11% at 100 Hz-1 MHz is obtained at the maximum output power, whereas the laser timing jitter is degraded by the final amplifier from 318 to 410 fs at an integration frequency of 5 kHz to 1 MHz, owing to the self-phase modulation effect-induced spectrum broadening. The root-mean-square of long-term power fluctuation is tested to be 0.6%, verifying the good stability of the laser operation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest average power of an ultrafast laser realized from an all-PM-fiber TDF-CPA system ever reported.
chirped pulse amplification high average power thulium-doped fiber laser ultrafast laser 
High Power Laser Science and Engineering
2023, 11(6): 06000e73
Author Affiliations
Abstract
1 Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
2 College of Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, China
3 Nanhu Laser Laboratory, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, China
Gérard Mourou received his PhD from Pierre and Marie Curie University in 1973. He and his student Donna Strickland co-invented chirped pulse amplification (CPA) technology and shared the 2018 Nobel Prize in Physics. This technology made it possible to apply ultrafast lasers to many new areas, such as eye surgery, precision manufacturing, particle physics and nuclear fusion. Gérard Mourou is the founding Director of the Center for Ultrafast Optical Science (CUOS) at the University of Michigan and the initiator of the Extreme Light Infrastructure (ELI) in Europe.
High Power Laser Science and Engineering
2023, 11(6): 06000e74
Author Affiliations
Abstract
High Power Laser Science and Engineering
2023, 11(6): 06000e75
K. Q. Pan 1Z. C. Li 1,*L. Guo 1T. Gong 1[ ... ]X. T. He 2,3
Author Affiliations
Abstract
1 Laser Fusion Research Center, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, China
2 Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing, China
3 Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing, China
Competition among the two-plasmon decay (TPD) of backscattered light of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS), filamentation of the electron-plasma wave (EPW) and forward side SRS is investigated by two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. Our previous work [K. Q. Pan et al., Nucl. Fusion 58, 096035 (2018)] showed that in a plasma with the density near 1/10 of the critical density, the backscattered light would excite the TPD, which results in suppression of the backward SRS. However, this work further shows that when the laser intensity is so high ( $>{10}^{16}$ W/cm2) that the backward SRS cannot be totally suppressed, filamentation of the EPW and forward side SRS will be excited. Then the TPD of the backscattered light only occurs in the early stage and is suppressed in the latter stage. Electron distribution functions further show that trapped-particle-modulation instability should be responsible for filamentation of the EPW. This research can promote the understanding of hot-electron generation and SRS saturation in inertial confinement fusion experiments.
laser plasma instability inertial confinement fusion high energy density physics particle-in-cell simulation super-hot electrons 
High Power Laser Science and Engineering
2023, 11(6): 06000e76
Author Affiliations
Abstract
Joint Laboratory on High Power Laser and Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China
Vladimir Tikhonchuk, Professor Emeritus at Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications, University of Bordeaux, France, and senior researcher at the Extreme Light Infrastructure ERIC, ELI-Beamlines Facility, Czech Republic. His research is in the domain of high energy density physics and nonlinear optics, including inertial confinement fusion (ICF), dynamic processes in laboratory astrophysics, laser–plasma interactions, excitation of parametric instabilities, generation of magnetic and electric fields, acceleration of charged particles and energy transport.
High Power Laser Science and Engineering
2023, 11(6): 06000e77
Author Affiliations
Abstract
Gaponov-Grekhov Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod603950, Russia
The eXawatt Center for Extreme Light Studies project aimed to create a large scientific infrastructure based on lasers with giant peak power. The project relies on the significant progress achieved in the last decade. The planned infrastructure will incorporate a unique light source with a pulse power of 600 PW using optical parametric chirped pulse amplification in large-aperture KD2PO4, deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals. The interaction of such laser radiation with matter represents a completely new fundamental physics. The direct study of the space–time structure of vacuums and other unknown phenomena at the frontier of high-energy physics and the physics of superstrong fields will be challenged. Expected applications will include the development of compact particle accelerators, the generation of ultrashort pulses of hard X-ray and gamma radiation for material science enabling one to probe material samples with unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution, the development of new radiation and particle sources, etc. The paper is translation from Russian [Kvantovaya Elektronika 53, 95 (2023)].
high-power femtosecond lasers interaction of ultrarelativistic field with matter 
High Power Laser Science and Engineering
2023, 11(6): 06000e78
Author Affiliations
Abstract
1 HiLASE Centre, Institute of Physics of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Dolni Brezany, Czech Republic
2 Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic
A fully automatic fail-safe beam shaping system based on a liquid crystal on a silicon spatial light modulator has been implemented in the high-energy kilowatt-average-power nanosecond laser system Bivoj. The shaping system corrects for gain nonuniformity and wavefront aberrations of the front-end of the system. The beam intensity profile and the wavefront at the output of the front-end were successfully improved by shaping. The beam homogeneity defined by the beam quality parameters was improved two to three times. The root-mean-square value of the wavefront was improved more than 10 times. Consequently, the shaped beam from the second preamplifier led to improvement of the beam profile at the output of the first main cryo-amplifier. The shaping system is also capable of creating nonordinary beam shapes, imprinting cross-references into the beam, or masking certain parts of the beam.
beam shaping high-average-power laser high-energy laser liquid crystal on silicon spatial light modulator wavefront shaping 
High Power Laser Science and Engineering
2023, 11(6): 06000e79
Li Jiang 1,2,3Jinming Wu 1,2,3Rui Song 1,2,3,*Zilun Chen 1,2,3[ ... ]Jing Hou 1,2,3,*
Author Affiliations
Abstract
1 College of Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, China
2 Nanhu Laser Laboratory, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, China
3 Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of High Energy Laser Technology, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, China
The random distributed-feedback fiber laser (RFL) is a new approach to obtain a high-power stable supercontinuum (SC) source. To consider both structure simplification and high-power SC output, an innovative structure achieving a kilowatt-level SC output in a single-stage RFL with a half-open cavity is demonstrated in this paper. It consists of a fiber oscillator, a piece of long passive fiber and a broadband coupler, among which the broadband coupler acting as a feedback device is crucial in SC generation. When the system has no feedback, the backward output power is up to 298 W under the pump power of 1185 W. When the feedback is introduced before the pump laser, the backward power loss can be reduced and the pump can be fully utilized, which could promote forward output power and conversion efficiency significantly. Under the maximum pump power of 1847 W, a 1300 W SC with spectrum ranging from 887 to 1920 nm and SC conversion efficiency of 66% is obtained. To the best of our knowledge, it is the simplest structure used for high-power SC generation, and both the generated SC output power and the conversion efficiency are highest in the scheme of the half-opened RFL output SC.
high conversion efficiency high-power supercontinuum random fiber laser single-stage structure 
High Power Laser Science and Engineering
2023, 11(6): 06000e80
Shuailin Liu 1,2,3Bin Zhang 1,2,3,*Yuanzhuang Bu 1,2,3Desheng Zhao 1,2,3[ ... ]Jing Hou 1,2,3,*
Author Affiliations
Abstract
1 College of Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, China
2 Nanhu Laser Laboratory, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, China
3 Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of High Energy Laser Technology, Changsha, China
We report a Yb-doped all-fiber laser system generating burst-mode pulses with high energy and high peak power at a GHz intra-burst repetition rate. To acquire the uniform burst envelope, a double-pre-compensation structure with an arbitrary waveform laser diode driver and an acoustic optical modulator is utilized for the first time. The synchronous pumping is utilized for the system to reduce the burst repetition rate to 100 Hz and suppress the amplified spontaneous emission effect. By adjusting the gain of every stage, uniform envelopes with different output energies can be easily obtained. The intra-burst repetition rate can be tuned from 0.5 to 10 GHz actively modulated by an electro-optic modulator. Optimized by timing control of eight channels of analog signal and amplified by seven stages of Yb-doped fiber amplifier, the pulse energy achieves 13.3 mJ at 0.5 ns intra-burst pulse duration, and the maximum peak power reaches approximately 3.6 MW at 48 ps intra-burst pulse duration. To the best of our knowledge, for reported burst-mode all-fiber lasers, this is a record for output energy and peak power with nanosecond-level burst duration, and the widest tuning range of the intra-burst repetition rate. In particular, this flexibly tunable burst-mode laser system can be directly applied to generate high-power frequency-tunable microwaves.
burst-mode laser fiber laser high peak power high pulse energy 
High Power Laser Science and Engineering
2023, 11(6): 06000e81
Author Affiliations
Abstract
1 Grupo de Investigación en Aplicaciones del Láser y Fotónica, Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain
2 Present address: Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain
3 Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain
4 Unidad de Excelencia en Luz y Materia Estructuradas (LUMES), Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain
Ultrafast laser pulses provide unique tools to manipulate magnetization dynamics at femtosecond timescales, where the interaction of the electric field usually dominates over the magnetic field. Recent proposals using structured laser beams have demonstrated the possibility to produce regions where intense oscillating magnetic fields are isolated from the electric field. In these conditions, we show that technologically feasible tesla-scale circularly polarized high-frequency magnetic fields induce purely precessional nonlinear magnetization dynamics. This fundamental result not only opens an avenue in the study of laser-induced ultrafast magnetization dynamics, but also sustains technological implications as a route to promote all-optical non-thermal magnetization dynamics both at shorter timescales – towards the sub-femtosecond regime – and at THz frequencies.
chiral behavior nonlinear dynamics ultrafast dynamics 
High Power Laser Science and Engineering
2023, 11(6): 06000e82
Author Affiliations
Abstract
1 Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications (CELIA), Université de Bordeaux–CNRS–CEA, Talence cedex, France
2 ENEA, Fusion and Technology for Nuclear Safety and Security Department, C.R. Frascati, Frascati, Italy
3 AWE, Aldermaston, Reading, UK
4 Centre for Inertial Fusion Studies, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London, UK
5 Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR-INO), Pisa, Italy
6 ETSIAE Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
7 GSI-Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt, Germany
8 Laboratoire pour l’Utilisation des Lasers Intenses (LULI), CNRS–Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau cedex, France
9 ALP, Le Barp, France and CEA/DAM Île de France, Bruyères le Châtel, Arpajon cedex, France
10 Instituto Fusión Nuclear “Guillermo Velarde” (IFN-GV), Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
11 Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Oxfordshire, UK
12 Institute of Plasma Physics and Lasers, University Research and Innovation Centre, Hellenic Mediterranean University, Rethymno, Crete, Greece
13 Department of Electronic Engineering, School of Engineering, Hellenic Mediterranean University, Chania, Crete, Greece
14 Extreme Light Infrastructure ERIC, ELI-Beamlines Facility, Dolní Břežany, Czech Republic
15 Centro de Laseres Pulsados (CLPU), Parque Cientifico, Villamayor, Salamanca, Spain
The recent achievement of fusion ignition with laser-driven technologies at the National Ignition Facility sets a historic accomplishment in fusion energy research. This accomplishment paves the way for using laser inertial fusion as a viable approach for future energy production. Europe has a unique opportunity to empower research in this field internationally, and the scientific community is eager to engage in this journey. We propose establishing a European programme on inertial-fusion energy with the mission to demonstrate laser-driven ignition in the direct-drive scheme and to develop pathway technologies for the commercial fusion reactor. The proposed roadmap is based on four complementary axes: (i) the physics of laser–plasma interaction and burning plasmas; (ii) high-energy high repetition rate laser technology; (iii) fusion reactor technology and materials; and (iv) reinforcement of the laser fusion community by international education and training programmes. We foresee collaboration with universities, research centres and industry and establishing joint activities with the private sector involved in laser fusion. This project aims to stimulate a broad range of high-profile industrial developments in laser, plasma and radiation technologies along with the expected high-level socio-economic impact.
education and training fusion reactor technology high-energy laser high repetition rate laser inertial confinement fusion laser–plasma interaction public–private partnership radiation resistant materials 
High Power Laser Science and Engineering
2023, 11(6): 06000e83
Author Affiliations
Abstract
College of Electronics and Information Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China
Nonlinear compression has become an obligatory technique along with the development of ultrafast lasers in generating ultrashort pulses with narrow pulse widths and high peak power. In particular, techniques of nonlinear compression have experienced a rapid progress as ytterbium (Yb)-doped lasers with pulse widths in the range from hundreds of femtoseconds to a few picoseconds have become mainstream laser tools for both scientific and industrial applications. Here, we report a simple and stable nonlinear pulse compression technique with high efficiency through cascaded filamentation in air followed by dispersion compensation. Pulses at a center wavelength of 1040 nm with millijoule pulse energy and 160 fs pulse width from a high-power Yb:CaAlGdO4 regenerative amplifier are compressed to 32 fs, with only 2.4% loss from the filamentation process. The compressed pulse has a stable output power with a root-mean-square variation of 0.2% over 1 hour.
femtosecond pulse filamentation nonlinear compression 
High Power Laser Science and Engineering
2023, 11(6): 06000e84
Tong Yang 1,2Zhen Guo 1,2Yang Yan 1,2Minjian Wu 1,2[ ... ]Chen Lin 1,2,3,*
Author Affiliations
Abstract
1 State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, and Key Laboratory of HEDP of the Ministry of Education, CAPT, Peking University, Beijing, China
2 Beijing Laser Acceleration Innovation Center, Beijing, China
3 Institute of Guangdong Laser Plasma Technology, Guangzhou, China
The discharged capillary plasma channel has been extensively studied as a high-gradient particle acceleration and transmission medium. A novel measurement method of plasma channel density profiles has been employed, where the role of plasma channels guiding the advantages of lasers has shown strong appeal. Here, we have studied the high-order transverse plasma density profile distribution using a channel-guided laser, and made detailed measurements of its evolution under various parameters. The paraxial wave equation in a plasma channel with high-order density profile components is analyzed, and the approximate propagation process based on the Gaussian profile laser is obtained on this basis, which agrees well with the simulation under phase conditions. In the experiments, by measuring the integrated transverse laser intensities at the outlet of the channels, the radial quartic density profiles of the plasma channels have been obtained. By precisely synchronizing the detection laser pulses and the plasma channels at various moments, the reconstructed density profile shows an evolution from the radial quartic profile to the quasi-parabolic profile, and the high-order component is indicated as an exponential decline tendency over time. Factors affecting the evolution rate were investigated by varying the incentive source and capillary parameters. It can be found that the discharge voltages and currents are positive factors quickening the evolution, while the electron-ion heating, capillary radii and pressures are negative ones. One plausible explanation is that quartic profile contributions may be linked to plasma heating. This work helps one to understand the mechanisms of the formation, the evolutions of the guiding channel electron-density profiles and their dependences on the external controllable parameters. It provides support and reflection for physical research on discharged capillary plasma and optimizing plasma channels in various applications.
channel-guided laser discharge capillary plasma density profile 
High Power Laser Science and Engineering
2023, 11(6): 06000e85
Author Affiliations
Abstract
1 GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt, Germany
2 Institut für angewandte Physik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany
3 Helmholtz-Institut Jena, Jena, Germany
4 ELI-NP, Horia Hulubei National Institute for R&D in Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), Măgurele, Ilfov, Romania
5 Faculty of Physics, University of Bucharest, Măgurele, Ilfov, Romania
6 Center for Advanced Laser Technologies (CETAL), National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics (INFLPR), Măgurele, Ilfov, Romania
The spatial distribution of beams with orbital angular momentum in the far field is known to be extremely sensitive to angular aberrations, such as astigmatism, coma and trefoil. This poses a challenge for conventional beam optimization strategies when a homogeneous ring intensity is required for an application. We developed a novel approach for estimating the Zernike coefficients of low-order angular aberrations in the near field based solely on the analysis of the ring deformations in the far field. A fast, iterative reconstruction of the focal ring recreates the deformations and provides insight into the wavefront deformations in the near field without relying on conventional phase retrieval approaches. The output of our algorithm can be used to optimize the focal ring, as demonstrated experimentally at the 100 TW beamline at the Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics facility.
beam quality far field orbital angular momentum ring intensity phase retrieval wavefront 
High Power Laser Science and Engineering
2023, 11(6): 06000e86
Qingshan Liu 1,2,3Rui Wang 1,2,3Zining Yang 1,2,3,*Jianyong Sun 1,2[ ... ]Xiaojun Xu 1,2,3
Author Affiliations
Abstract
1 College of Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, China
2 Nanhu Laser Laboratory, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, China
3 Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of High Energy Laser Technology, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, China
Diode-pumped rare gas lasers are potential candidates for high-energy and high-beam quality laser systems. Currently, most investigations are focused on metastable Ar lasers. The Kr system has the unique advantages of higher quantum efficiency and lower discharge requirements for comparison. In this paper, a diode-pumped metastable Kr laser was demonstrated for the first time. Using a repetitively pulsed discharge at a Kr/He pressure of up to approximately 1500 Torr, metastable Kr atoms of more than 1013 cm–3 were generated. Under diode pumping, the laser realized a dual-wavelength output with an average output power of approximately 100 mW and an optical conversion efficiency of approximately 10% with respect to the absorbed pump power. A kinetics study involving population distribution and evolution was conducted to analyze the laser performance.
diode pump krypton metastable rare gas laser 
High Power Laser Science and Engineering
2023, 11(6): 06000e87
Chaoyu Ning 1,2,3,4Shuzhen Zou 1,4Haijuan Yu 1,2,3,4Jiexi Zuo 1,2,3,4[ ... ]Xuechun Lin 1,2,3,4,*
Author Affiliations
Abstract
1 Laboratory of All-Solid-State Light Sources, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
2 Center of Materials Science and Optoelectronics Engineering, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
3 College of Materials Science and Opto-Electronic Technology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
4 Beijing Engineering Technology Research Center of All-Solid-State Lasers Advanced Manufacturing, Beijing, China
In this work, we experimentally investigate the dependence of the stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) effect on the seed linewidth of a high-power nanosecond superfluorescent fiber source (ns-SFS). The results reveal that the SRS in the ns-SFS amplifier is significantly influenced by the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the ns-SFS seed, and there is an optimal FWHM linewidth of 2 nm to achieve the lowest SRS in our case. The first-order SRS power ratio increases rapidly when the seed’s linewidth deviates from the optimal FWHM linewidth. By power scaling the ns-SFS seed with the optimal FWHM linewidth, a narrowband all-fiberized ns-SFS amplifier is achieved with a maximum average power of 602 W, pulse energy of 24.1 mJ and corresponding peak power of 422.5 kW. This is the highest average power and pulse energy achieved for all-fiberized ns-SFS amplifiers to the best of our knowledge.
fiber amplifier high power nanosecond superfluorescent fiber source stimulated Raman scattering effect 
High Power Laser Science and Engineering
2023, 11(6): 06000e88
Kun Shuai 1,2,3Yuanan Zhao 1,2,3,*Xiaofeng Liu 1,2,3,*Xiangkun Lin 1,2,3[ ... ]Jianda Shao 1,3,9
Author Affiliations
Abstract
1 Laboratory of Thin Film Optics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Shanghai, China
2 Center of Materials Science and Optoelectronics Engineering, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
3 Key Laboratory of Materials for High Power Laser, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China
4 School of Materials Science and Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, China
5 National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China
6 School of Optical-Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai, China
7 National Laboratory on High Power Laser and Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, CAS, Shanghai, China
8 Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, China
9 Hangzhou Institute for Advanced Study, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hangzhou, China
Multilayer dielectric gratings (MLDGs) are crucial for pulse compression in picosecond–petawatt laser systems. Bulged nodular defects, embedded in coating stacks during multilayer deposition, influence the lithographic process and performance of the final MLDG products. In this study, the integration of nanosecond laser conditioning (NLC) into different manufacturing stages of MLDGs was proposed for the first time on multilayer dielectric films (MLDFs) and final grating products to improve laser-induced damage performance. The results suggest that the remaining nodular ejection pits introduced by the two protocols exhibit a high nanosecond laser damage resistance, which remains stable when the irradiated laser fluence is more than twice the nanosecond-laser-induced damage threshold (nanosecond-LIDT) of the unconditioned MLDGs. Furthermore, the picosecond-LIDT of the nodular ejection pit conditioned on the MLDFs was approximately 40% higher than that of the nodular defects, and the loss of the grating structure surrounding the nodular defects was avoided. Therefore, NLC is an effective strategy for improving the laser damage resistance of MLDGs.
laser-induced damage threshold multilayer dielectric gratings nanosecond laser conditioning nodular defects picosecond–petawatt laser systems 
High Power Laser Science and Engineering
2023, 11(6): 06000e89
Author Affiliations
Abstract
1 State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, and Key Laboratory of HEDP of the Ministry of Education, CAPT, Peking University, Beijing, China
2 Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of High-Energy Scale Physics and Applications, School of Physics and Electronics, Hunan University, Changsha, China
3 Center for Relativistic Laser Science, Institute for Basic Science, Gwangju, Republic of Korea
4 Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai, China
5 Collaborative Innovation Center of Extreme Optics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, China
6 Guangdong Laser Plasma Institute, Guangzhou, China
The production of broadband, terawatt terahertz (THz) pulses has been demonstrated by irradiating relativistic lasers on solid targets. However, the generation of extremely powerful, narrow-band and frequency-tunable THz pulses remains a challenge. Here, we present a novel approach for such THz pulses, in which a plasma wiggler is elaborated by a table-top laser and a near-critical density plasma. In such a wiggler, the laser-accelerated electrons emit THz radiations with a period closely related to the plasma thickness. The theoretical model and numerical simulations predict that a THz pulse with a laser–THz energy conversion of over 2.0%, an ultra-strong field exceeding 80 GV/m, a divergence angle of approximately 20° and a center frequency tunable from 4.4 to 1.5 THz can be generated from a laser of 430 mJ. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this method can work across a wide range of laser and plasma parameters, offering potential for future applications with extremely powerful THz pulses.
laser plasma terahertz wiggler 
High Power Laser Science and Engineering
2023, 11(6): 06000e90
Author Affiliations
Abstract
1 SANKEN (Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research), Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka, Japan
2 Kansai Institute for Photon Science (KPSI), National Institutes for Quantum Science and Technology (QST), Kizugawa-city, Kyoto, Japan
3 RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Sayo, Hyogo, Japan
Supersonic gas jets generated via a conical nozzle are widely applied in the laser wakefield acceleration of electrons. The stability of the gas jet is critical to the electron injection and the reproducibility of the wakefield acceleration. Here we discussed the role of the stilling chamber in a modified converging–diverging nozzle to dissipate the turbulence and to stabilize the gas jets. By the fluid dynamics simulations and the Mach–Zehnder interferometer measurements, the instability originating from the nonlinear turbulence is studied and the mechanism to suppress the instability is proposed. Both the numerical and experimental results prove that the carefully designed nozzle with a stilling chamber is able to reduce the perturbation by more than 10% compared with a simple-conical nozzle.
shock injection hydrodynamic stability laser wakefield acceleration laser–plasma interaction 
High Power Laser Science and Engineering
2023, 11(6): 06000e91
Author Affiliations
Abstract
1 School of Electronic Engineering and Optoelectronic Technology, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, China
2 MIIT Key Laboratory of Advanced Solid Laser, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, China
With the increasing power of fiber lasers, single chirped and tilted fiber Bragg gratings (CTFBGs) cannot completely mitigate continuously enhanced system-excited stimulated Raman scattering (SRS). Although improving the loss rate of a single CTFBG or cascading multiple CTFBGs can provide better suppression of the stronger SRS, excessive insertion loss may cause significant attenuation of the output power. Confronting the challenge, we firstly present an SRS mitigation method based on a dual-structure fiber grating in this paper. The dual-structure fiber grating comprises a CTFBG and a fiber Bragg grating structure, which were designed and fabricated on a passive 25/400 double-clad fiber. To evaluate the performance of the grating, a 3 kW fiber master oscillator power amplifier laser is established. The experimental results demonstrate that the SRS mitigation rate of the grating is greater than 30 dB (99.9%), whereas the insertion loss is only approximately 3%, thus allowing for minimal deterioration of the output power. This solves the contradiction between high suppression rate and high insertion loss faced by CTFBGs, which in turn makes dual-structure fiber gratings particularly suitable for mitigating SRS in 3–5 kW high-power fiber lasers.
dual-structure fiber grating fiber optics component high-power fiber laser stimulated Raman scattering 
High Power Laser Science and Engineering
2023, 11(6): 06000e92
Author Affiliations
Abstract
Gaponov-Grekhov Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia
All space–time coupling effects arising in an asymmetric optical compressor consisting of two non-identical pairs of diffraction gratings are described analytically. In each pair, the gratings are identical and parallel to each other, whereas the distance between the gratings, the groove density and the angle of incidence are different in different pairs. It is shown that the compressor asymmetry does not affect the far-field fluence and on-axis focal intensity. The main distinctive feature of the asymmetric compressor is spatial noise lagging behind or overtaking the main pulse in proportion to the transverse wave vector. This results in a degraded contrast but reduces beam fluence fluctuations at the compressor output. Exact expressions are obtained for the spectrum of fluence fluctuations and fluence root mean square that depends only on one parameter characterizing compressor asymmetry. The efficiency of small-scale self-focusing suppression at subsequent pulse post-compression is estimated.
self-focusing suppression space–time overlapping spatial and temporal self-filtering symmetric and asymmetric compressors 
High Power Laser Science and Engineering
2023, 11(6): 06000e93