2021, 9(12) Column
Imaging Systems, Microscopy, and Displays Integrated Optics Quantum Optics Optoelectronics Fiber Optics and Optical Communications Optical and Photonic Materials Medical Optics and Biotechnology Nanophotonics and Photonic Crystals Physical Optics Nonlinear Optics Holography, Gratings, and Diffraction Optical Devices
Photonics Research 第9卷 第12期
Characterizing the performance of fluorescence microscopy and nonlinear imaging systems is an essential step required for imaging system optimization and quality control during longitudinal experiments. Emerging multimodal nonlinear imaging techniques require a new generation of microscopy calibration targets that are not susceptible to bleaching and can provide a contrast across the multiple modalities. Here, we present a nanodiamond-based calibration target for microscopy, designed for facilitating reproducible measurements at the object plane. The target is designed to support day-to-day instrumentation development efforts in microscopy laboratories. The images of a phantom contain information about the imaging performance of a microscopy system across multiple spectral windows and modalities. Since fluorescent nanodiamonds are not prone to bleaching, the proposed imaging target can serve as a standard, shelf-stable sample to provide rapid reference measurements for ensuring consistent performance of microscopy systems in microscopy laboratories and imaging facilities.
Polarization rotator-splitters (PRSs) are crucial components for controlling the polarization states of light in classical and quantum communication systems. We design and experimentally demonstrate a broadband PRS based on the lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) platform. Both the rotator and splitter sections are based on adiabatically tapered waveguide structures, and the whole device only requires a single etching step. We show efficient PRS operation over an experimentally measured bandwidth of 130 nm at telecom wavelengths, potentially as wide as 500 nm according to simulation prediction, with relatively low polarization crosstalks of
. Our PRS is highly compatible with the design constraints and fabrication processes of common LNOI photonic devices, and it could become an important element in future LNOI photonic integrated circuits.
We propose and demonstrate an experimental implementation for the observation of magnetic fields from spatial features of absorption profiles in a warm atomic vapor. A radially polarized vector beam that traverses atomic vapor will generate an absorption pattern with a petal-like structure by the mediation of a transverse magnetic field (TMF). The spatial absorption pattern rotates when the azimuthal angle of the TMF is changed, while its contrast decreases when the longitudinal component of the magnetic field increases. By analyzing the intensity distribution of the transmitted pattern, we can determine the magnetic field strength. Our work provides a framework for investigating 3D magnetic field distributions based on atoms.
Quantum machine learning aspires to overcome intractability that currently limits its applicability to practical applications. However, quantum machine learning itself is limited by low effective dimensions achievable in state-of-the-art experiments. Here, we demonstrate highly successful classifications of real-life images using photonic qubits, combining a quantum tensor-network representation of hand-written digits and entanglement-based optimization. Specifically, we focus on binary classification for hand-written zeroes and ones, whose features are cast into the tensor-network representation, further reduced by optimization based on entanglement entropy and encoded into two-qubit photonic states. We then demonstrate image classification with a high success rate exceeding 98%, through successive gate operations and projective measurements. Although we work with photons, our approach is amenable to other physical realizations such as nitrogen-vacancy centers, nuclear spins, and trapped ions, and our scheme can be scaled to efficient multi-qubit encodings of features in the tensor-product representation, thereby setting the stage for quantum-enhanced multi-class classification.
CsPbBr3 perovskite quantum-dot paper exhibiting a highest 3 dB bandwidth and realizing a flexible white-light system for visible-light communication
We propose a flexible white-light system for high-speed visible-light communication (VLC) applications, which consists of a semipolar blue InGaN/GaN single-quantum-well micro-light-emitting diode (LED) on a flexible substrate pumping green
perovskite quantum-dot (PQD) paper in nanostructure form and red CdSe QD paper. The highest bandwidth for PQD paper, 229 MHz, is achieved with a blue micro-LED pumping source and a high data transmission rate of 400 Mbps; this is very promising for VLC application. An 817 MHz maximum bandwidth and a 1.5 Gbps transmission speed are attained by the proposed semipolar blue micro-LEDs. The proposed flexible white light system and the high-bandwidth PQD paper could pave the way for VLC wearable devices.
Quantum key distribution with continuous variables already uses advantageous high-speed single-mode homodyne detection with low electronic noise at room temperature. Together with continuous-variable information encoding to nonclassical states, the distance for secure key transmission through lossy channels can approach 300 km in current optical fibers. Such protocols tolerate higher channel noise and also limited data processing efficiency compared to coherent-state protocols. The secret key rate can be further increased by increasing the system clock rates, and, further, by a suitable frequency-mode-multiplexing of optical transmission channels. However, the multiplexed modes couple together in the source or any other part of the protocol. Therefore, multiplexed communication will experience cross talk and the gain can be minuscule. Advantageously, homodyne detectors allow solving this cross-talk problem by proper data processing. It is a potential advantage over protocols with single-photon detectors, which do not enable similar data processing techniques. We demonstrate the positive outcome of this methodology on the experimentally characterized frequency-multiplexed entangled source of femtosecond optical pulses with natural cross talk between eight entangled pairs of modes. As the main result, we predict the almost 15-fold higher secret key rate. This experimental test and analysis of frequency-multiplexed entanglement source open the way for the field implementation of high-capacity quantum key distribution with continuous variables.
High-capacity, long-distance underwater optical communication enables a global scale optical network covering orbit, land, and water. Underwater communication using photons as carriers has a high channel capacity; however, the light scattering and absorption of water lead to an inevitable huge channel loss, setting an insurmountable transmission distance for existing underwater optical communication technologies. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the photon-inter-correlation optical communication (PICOC) in air–water scenarios. We retrieve additional internal correlation resources from the sparse single-photon stream with high fidelity. We successfully realize the 105-m-long underwater optical communication against a total loss up to 120.1 dB using only a microwatt laser. The demonstrated underwater light attenuation is equivalent to the loss of 883-m-long Jerlov type I water, encouraging the practical air–water optical communication to connect deeper underwater worlds.
Enhanced multimodal luminescence and ultrahigh stability Eu3+-doped CsPbBr3 glasses for X-ray detection and imaging
As an emerging scintillation material, metal halide perovskite (
) has been deemed the most potentially valuable candidate in X-ray detection and medical imaging. Nevertheless, it is a continuing challenge to implement efficient radioluminescence (RL) with high radiation stability and moisture resistance. Moreover, the optimized luminescence properties and excellent uniformity of glass are also key points for obtaining perfect X-ray images. Herein, we have successfully precipitated -doped nanocrystals (NCs) with improved photoluminescence quantum yield ( ) because partial entered the perovskite lattice in a robust borosilicate glass matrix by in situ crystallization. The small amount of Eu addition made the lattice of NCs shrink and promoted uniform distribution of NCs in the glass, which effectively reduced the light scattering of the sample. Subsequently, multimodal RL intensity of the :xEu NCs glasses (CPB-0Eu/CPB-xEu) as a function of X-ray dose rate showed a superlinear relationship to the benefit of obtaining satisfactory X-ray images. Also, the outstanding radiation stability and water resistance of CPB-xEu were confirmed due to the protection of the robust glass matrix. Finally, an X-ray imaging system using a CPB-xEu scintillator was constructed, and the spring in the opaque sample was legibly detected under the motivation of X-rays, indicating that glasses possess extensive application prospects in terms of X-ray detection and medical imaging.
Cancer is one of the most common diseases to threaten human health. If individuals are diagnosed with malignant tumors via a single cell, medical workers are greatly advantageous to early diagnose and intervene in malignant tumors therapy. In this paper, we propose a fluorescence detection map to rapidly distinguish whether the chromosomes of a cell are normal or abnormal by detecting the fluorescent intensity of a single cell. Herein, we draw a map from a single cell with an abnormal number of chromosomes that is monitored in real time. Moreover, this way offers precise and prompt detection of the surviving of cancer cells at or near the site of the tumor after treatments for cancer, which can achieve personalized cancer diagnosis and therapy. Therefore, cancer recurrences and metastasis can be effectively identified, utilizing this ultrasensitive detection method of an abnormal chromosome number.
Metalenses are ultrathin optical elements that can focus light using densely arranged subwavelength structures. Due to their minimal form factor, they have been considered promising for imaging applications that require extreme system size, weight, and power, such as in consumer electronics and remote sensing. However, as a major impediment prohibiting the wide adoption of the metalens technology, the aperture size, and consequently the imaging resolution, of a metalens are often limited by lithography processes that are not scalable. Here, we propose to adopt a synthetic aperture approach to alleviate the issue, and experimentally demonstrate that, assisted by computational reconstruction, a synthetic aperture metalens composed of multiple metalenses with relatively small aperture size can achieve an imaging resolution comparable to a conventional lens with an equivalent large aperture. We validate the concept via an outdoor imaging experiment performed with a synthetic aperture metalens-integrated near-infrared camera using natural sunlight for target illumination.
Hybrid photonic-plasmonic cavities have emerged as a new platform to increase light–matter interaction capable to enhance the Purcell factor in a singular way not attainable with either photonic or plasmonic cavities separately. In the hybrid cavities proposed so far, the plasmonic element is usually a metallic bow-tie antenna, so the plasmonic gap—defined by lithography—is limited to minimum values of several nanometers. Nanoparticle-on-a-mirror (NPoM) cavities are far superior to achieve the smallest possible mode volumes, as plasmonic gaps smaller than 1 nm can be created. Here, we design a hybrid cavity that combines an NPoM plasmonic cavity and a dielectric-nanobeam photonic crystal cavity operating at transverse-magnetic polarization. The metallic nanoparticle can be placed very close (
) to the upper surface of the dielectric cavity, which acts as a low-reflectivity mirror. We demonstrate through numerical calculations of the local density of states that this hybrid plasmonic-photonic cavity exhibits quality factors above and normalized mode volumes down to , thus resulting in high Purcell factors ( ), while being experimentally feasible with current technology. Our results suggest that hybrid cavities with sub-nanometer gaps should open new avenues for boosting light–matter interaction in nanophotonic systems.
Sensitive direct-conversion X-ray detectors formed by ZnO nanowire field emitters and β-Ga2O3 photoconductor targets with an electron bombardment induced photoconductivity mechanism
Sensitive X-ray detection is needed in diverse areas motivated by a common desire to reduce radiation dose. Cold cathode X-ray detectors operating with a photoelectron multiplication mechanism called electron bombardment induced photoconductivity (EBIPC) have emerged as promising candidates for low-dose X-ray detection. Herein, the cold cathode detectors formed by ZnO nanowire field emitters and
photoconductor targets were proposed for sensitive direct-conversion X-ray detection. The charge carrier transport mechanism of EBIPC effect in X-ray detectors was investigated to achieve a high internal gain ( ) and high detection sensitivity ( ) for a 6 keV X-ray at the electric field of . Furthermore, the proposed X-ray detectors showed the features of fast response time (40 ms), long-term stability (0.6% for 1 h), and low detection limit ( ), suggesting that the direct-conversion cold cathode X-ray detectors are ideal candidates for low-energy X-ray detecting and imaging applications.
Ultrasmall and ultradense InGaN-based RGB monochromatic micro-light-emitting diode arrays by pixilation of conductive p-GaN
We describe 5 μm squircle InGaN-based red, green, and blue (RGB) monochromatic micro-light-emitting diodes (μLEDs) with an interpitch of 4 μm by pixilation of conductive p-GaN using a
-plasma treatment. The p-GaN was passivated by plasma and prevented the current’s injection into the InGaN quantum wells below. We observed that InGaN-based red μLEDs exhibited a broader full width at half-maximum and larger peak wavelength blueshift at than the green/blue μLEDs. The on-wafer light output power density of the red μLEDs at a wavelength of 632 nm at was approximately , the highest value reported thus far for InGaN-based red μLEDs. This value was comparable with that of the green/blue μLEDs at , indicating that the red μLEDs can satisfy the requirement of high brightness levels for specific displays. The color gamut based on InGaN RGB μLEDs covered 83.7% to 75.9% of the Rec. 2020 color space in the CIE 1931 diagram at 11.5 to .
Unconventional Weyl points with topological charges higher than 1 can transform into various complex unconventional Weyl exceptional contours under non-Hermitian perturbations. However, theoretical studies of these exceptional contours have been limited to tight-binding models. Here, we propose to realize unconventional Weyl exceptional contours in photonic continua—non-Hermitian anisotropic chiral plasma, based on ab initio calculation by Maxwell’s equations. By perturbing in-plane permittivity, an unconventional Weyl point can transform into a quadratic Weyl exceptional ring, a type I Weyl exceptional chain with one chain point, a type II Weyl exceptional chain with two chain points, or other forms. Realistic metamaterials with effective constitutive parameters are proposed to implement these unconventional Weyl exceptional contours. Our work paves a way toward exploration of exotic physics of unconventional Weyl exceptional contours in non-Hermitian topological photonic continua.
Multimode optical fibers are attracting a growing interest for their capability to transport high-power laser beams, coupled with novel nonlinear optics-based applications. However, optical fiber breakdown occurs when beam intensities exceed a certain critical value. Optical breakdown associated with irreversible modifications of the refractive index, triggered by multiphoton absorption, has been largely exploited for fiber material micro-structuration. Here we show that, for light beam intensities slightly below the breakdown threshold, nonlinear absorption strongly affects the dynamics of a propagating beam as well. We experimentally analyze this subthreshold regime and highlight the key role played by spatial self-imaging in graded-index fibers for enhancing nonlinear optical losses. We characterize the nonlinear power transmission properties of multimode fibers for femtosecond pulses propagating in the near-infrared spectral range. We show that an effective N-photon absorption analytical model is able to describe the experimental data well.
Flat lenses thinner than a wavelength promise to replace conventional refractive lenses in miniaturized optical systems. However, Fresnel zone plate flat lens designs require dense annuli, which significantly challenges nanofabrication resolution. Herein, we propose a new implementation of detour phase graphene flat lens with flexible annular number and width. Several graphene metalenses demonstrated that with a flexible selection of the line density and width, the metalenses can achieve the same focal length without significant distortions. This will significantly weaken the requirement of the nanofabrication system which is important for the development of large-scale flat lenses in industry applications.
Single-shot 2D optical imaging of transient scenes is indispensable for numerous areas of study. Among existing techniques, compressed optical-streaking ultrahigh-speed photography (COSUP) uses a cost-efficient design to endow ultrahigh frame rates with off-the-shelf CCD and CMOS cameras. Thus far, COSUP’s application scope is limited by the long processing time and unstable image quality in existing analytical-modeling-based video reconstruction. To overcome these problems, we have developed a snapshot-to-video autoencoder (S2V-AE)—which is a deep neural network that maps a compressively recorded 2D image to a movie. The S2V-AE preserves spatiotemporal coherence in reconstructed videos and presents a flexible structure to tolerate changes in input data. Implemented in compressed ultrahigh-speed imaging, the S2V-AE enables the development of single-shot machine-learning assisted real-time (SMART) COSUP, which features a reconstruction time of 60 ms and a large sequence depth of 100 frames. SMART-COSUP is applied to wide-field multiple-particle tracking at 20,000 frames per second. As a universal computational framework, the S2V-AE is readily adaptable to other modalities in high-dimensional compressed sensing. SMART-COSUP is also expected to find wide applications in applied and fundamental sciences.
Bifunctional ultraviolet light-emitting/detecting device based on a SnO2 microwire/p-GaN heterojunction
As an analog model of general relativity, optics on some two-dimensional (2D) curved surfaces has received increasing attention in the past decade. Here, in light of the Huygens–Fresnel principle, we propose a theoretical frame to study light propagation along arbitrary geodesics on any 2D curved surfaces. This theory not only enables us to solve the enigma of “infinite intensity” that existed previously at artificial singularities on surfaces of revolution but also makes it possible to study light propagation on arbitrary 2D curved surfaces. Based on this theory, we investigate the effects of light propagation on a typical surface of revolution, Flamm’s paraboloid, as an example, from which one can understand the behavior of light in the curved geometry of Schwarzschild black holes. Our theory provides a convenient and powerful tool for investigations of radiation in curved space.
Temporal magnification is an emerging technology for the observation of single-shot optical signals with irregular and ultrafast dynamics, which exceed the speed, precision, and record length of conventional digitizers. Conventional temporal magnification schemes suffer from transmission delay and large volume of dispersive elements. Because only the signal envelope can be magnified in the dispersion-based schemes, real-time full-field (phase and amplitude) measurement for a complex ultrafast optical signal remains an open challenge. Here, a bandwidth-compressed temporal magnification scheme for low-latency full-field measurements of ultrafast dynamics is proposed. Unlike the dispersion-based schemes, temporal magnification of a complex optical signal is achieved by bandwidth compression. The bandwidth is coherently compressed by the Vernier effect relying on the detuned free spectral range of a periodic optical filter and time lens. Experimentally, a temporal magnification factor of 224 is realized, and full-field measurements for picosecond pulses are demonstrated. The proposal eliminates the dependence on dispersive elements and shows great potential in integration, which may pave a new path toward full-field measurement for nonrepetitive and statistically rare signals.
Dual-wavelength in-line digital holography (DIDH) is one of the popular methods for quantitative phase imaging of objects with non-contact and high-accuracy features. Two technical challenges in the reconstruction of these objects include suppressing the amplified noise and the twin-image that respectively originate from the phase difference and the phase-conjugated wavefronts. In contrast to the conventional methods, the deep learning network has become a powerful tool for estimating phase information in DIDH with the assistance of noise suppressing or twin-image removing ability. However, most of the current deep learning-based methods rely on supervised learning and training instances, thereby resulting in weakness when it comes to applying this training to practical imaging settings. In this paper, a new DIDH network (DIDH-Net) is proposed, which encapsulates the prior image information and the physical imaging process in an untrained deep neural network. The DIDH-Net can effectively suppress the amplified noise and the twin-image of the DIDH simultaneously by automatically adjusting the weights of the network. The obtained results demonstrate that the proposed method with robust phase reconstruction is well suited to improve the imaging performance of DIDH.
Optical phased array (OPA) technology is considered a promising solution for solid-state beam steering to supersede the traditional mechanical beam steering. As a key component of the LIDAR system for long-range detection, OPAs featuring a wide steering angle and high resolution without beam aliasing are highly desired. However, a wide steering range requires a waveguide pitch less than half of the wavelength, which is easily subjected to cross talk. Besides, high resolution requires a large aperture, and it is normally achieved by a high count number of waveguides, which complicates the control system. To solve the mentioned issues, we design two high-performance 128-channel OPAs fabricated on a multilayered SiN-on-SOI platform. Attributed to the nonuniform antenna pitch, only 128 waveguides are used to achieve a 4 mm wide aperture. Besides, by virtue of innovative dual-level silicon nitride (
) waveguide grating antennas, the fishbone antenna OPA achieves a field of view (FOV) with divergence of , and the chain antenna OPA realizes a FOV with divergence of . To our best knowledge, 140° is the widest lateral steering range in two-dimensional OPA, and 0.029° is the smallest longitudinal divergence. Finally, we embed the OPA into a frequency-modulated continuous-wave system to achieve 100 m distance measurement. The reflected signal from 100 m distance is well detected with 26 dBm input transmitter power, which proves that OPA serves as a promising candidate for transceiving optical signal in a LIDAR system.
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