2022, 10(11) Column
Integrated Optics Physical Optics Image Processing and Image Analysis Optical Devices Imaging Systems, Microscopy, and Displays Lasers and Laser Optics Nanophotonics and Photonic Crystals Spectroscopy Instrumentation and Measurements Quantum Optics Nonlinear Optics Optoelectronics Surface Optics and Plasmonics Optical Metasurfaces: Fundamentals and Applications
Photonics Research 第10卷 第11期
Ultracompact, polarization-independent, and highly scalable optical power splitting model employing fan-out bending metamaterials
Optical power splitters (OPSs) are essential components in the photonic integrated circuits. Considerable power splitting schemes have been reported on the silicon-on-insulator platform. However, the corresponding device lengths are enlarged, and polarization-sensitive operations are usually encountered when the splitting channels are increased from two to five. In this paper, a novel power splitting model is proposed to overcome these limitations. Here, fan-out bending subwavelength grating (FBSWG) metamaterials instead of classical straight SWGs are leveraged to expand the input TE/TM mode in an ultracompact region and further bend its wavefronts. By using
-angled tapers to match bending wavefronts, the light expanded by FBSWGs can be collected and evenly distributed into output channels. Based on such a model, three OPSs are designed and experimentally demonstrated, which are the shortest polarization-independent , , and OPSs reported until now to our knowledge. The characterizations show low insertion losses ( , , and ) and uniformities ( , , and ) over bandwidths of 54 nm, 49 nm, and 38 nm for the , , and OPSs, respectively. For the first time, an ultracompact device length of and a polarization-independent operation can be maintained simultaneously as the output splitting channels are increased.
We address space–frequency domain coherence properties of broadband light-emitting diodes (white LEDs) and fields radiated by them. Inverse-source techniques are employed to determine the spectral degree of spatial coherence of an effective planar source representing a real LED, and coherent elementary fields associated with it. By fitting with experimental measurements, we formulate simple analytical coherence models that can be used as a basis for theoretical and experimental studies of the coherence of polychromatic stationary light in free space and in various optical systems. In particular, we find that radiation from white LEDs follows closely Wolf’s scaling law for spectral invariance [
] in the blue and the phosphor-generated parts of the spectrum separately, but not across the entire white-light spectrum. 56, 1370 ( 1986) PRLTAO 0031-9007 10.1103/PhysRevLett.56.1370
Lensless scattering imaging is a prospective approach to microscopy in which a high-resolution image of an object is reconstructed from one or more measured speckle patterns, thus providing a solution in situations where the use of imaging optics is not possible. However, current lensless scattering imaging methods are typically limited by the need for a light source with a narrowband spectrum. Here, we propose two general approaches that enable single-shot lensless scattering imaging under broadband illumination in both noninvasive [without point spread function (PSF) calibration] and invasive (with PSF calibration) modes. The first noninvasive approach is based on a numerical refinement of the broadband pattern in the cepstrum incorporated with a modified phase retrieval strategy. The latter invasive approach is correlation inspired and generalized within a computational optimization framework. Both approaches are experimentally verified using visible radiation with a full-width-at-half-maximum bandwidth as wide as 280 nm (
) and a speckle contrast ratio as low as 0.0823. Because of its generality and ease of implementation, we expect this method to find widespread applications in ultrafast science, passive sensing, and biomedical applications.
iterative photonic processor is proposed for the first time, we believe, for fast computation of complex-valued matrix inversion, a fundamental but computationally expensive linear algebra operation. Compared to traditional digital electronic processing, optical signal processing has a few unparalleled features that could enable higher representational efficiency and faster computing speed. The proposed processor is based on photonic integration platforms–the inclusion of III-V gain blocks offers net neutral loss in the phase-sensitive loops. This is essential for the Richardson iteration method that is adopted in this paper for complex linear systems. Wavelength multiplexing can be used to significantly improve the processing efficiency, allowing the computation of multiple columns of the inverse matrix using a single processor core. Performances of the key building blocks are modeled and simulated, followed by a system-level analysis, which serves as a guideline for designing an Richardson iteration processor. An inversion accuracy of can be predicted for a photonic processor with a times faster inversion rate than electronic processors. Including the power consumed by both active components and electronic circuits, the power efficiency of the proposed processor is estimated to be over an order of magnitude more energy-efficient than electronic processors. The proposed iterative photonic integrated processor provides a promising solution for future optical signal processing systems.
Achieving an axial superresolved focus with a single lens by simply inserting a modulation mask in the pupil plane is preferred due to its compact configuration and general applicability. However, lack of a universal theoretical model to manifest the superresolved focusing mechanism vastly complicates the mask design and hinders optimal resolution. Here we establish an interference model and find out that the axial resolution closely relates to the Gouy phase gradient (GPG) at the focal point. Using a GPG tuning-based optimization approach, the axial resolution of a ring-mask-modulated beam is readily improved to attain superresolved focal depth for multiple types of pupil function and polarization. In experiment, a focus with an axial resolution of 27% improved from the diffraction limit and 11% finer than the previously reported record is demonstrated for the radially polarized beam. In simulations, a spherical focus with 3D isotropic resolution and a superoscillation-like axial modulation behavior toward extremely high axial resolution is also presented. This approach can be applied for varied types of pupil function, wavelength, and polarization, and can be easily transferred to other traditional or superresolution microscopes to upgrade their axial resolution.
Fiber fuse effect can occur spontaneously and propagate along optical fibers to cause widespread damage; it threatens all applications involving optical fibers. This paper presents two results. First, it establishes that the initiation of fiber fuse (IFF) in silica fibers is caused by virtual-defect-induced absorption. Critical temperatures and critical optical powers for IFF are simulated for the first time using a 3D solid-state heat transfer model with heat source generated by the virtual-defect-induced absorption. In this method, formation energies of the virtual defects can be uniquely determined, which offers critical information on the chemical reasons for fiber fuse. Second, this paper offers a method to evaluate operating temperatures of fiber lasers. General analytical solutions of the operating temperatures along gain fibers are deduced. Results of 976-nm laser-diode-pumped and 1018-nm tandem-pumped ytterbium-doped fiber (YDF) amplifiers using 10/130-μm YDFs are calculated. Potential limits caused by fiber fuse are discussed.
Optical bound states in the continuum (BICs) are spatially localized states with vanishing radiation, despite their energy embedded in the continuum spectrum of the environment. They are expected to greatly enhance light–matter interaction due to their long lifetime and high quality factor. However, the BICs in all-dielectric structures generally exhibit large mode volumes and their properties are difficult to manipulate. In this paper, we propose a metal–dielectric hybrid nanostructure where a silver film is inserted into the silicon (Si) substrate under the Si nanopillar array. We show that symmetry-protected BIC in this system can couple with surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) to form a hybridized mode. Compared with previous symmetry-protected BICs in all-dielectric structures, the SPP-coupled BIC has a significantly decreased mode volume, and its corresponding electric field is strongly localized below the Si nanopillars. We also show that the SPP mode makes the original polarization-independent symmetry-protected BIC become polarization-dependent. In addition, we demonstrate that the silver film in the considered structure can induce a metal mirror effect. The destructive interference between the magnetic dipole inside the Si nanopillars and the mirror magnetic dipole in the silver film can lead to the formation of accidental BICs. Our hybrid structure provides a versatile platform for the manipulation of light–matter interaction in the nanoscale.
Dual-excitation decoding multiparameter-based ratiometric luminescence thermometry: a new strategy toward reliable and accurate thermal sensingDownload：580次
Luminescence thermometry can perform noninvasive thermal sensing with high spatial resolution and fast response, emerging as an exciting field of research due to its promising applications in biomedicine. Nevertheless, because of the interaction between light and complex tissues, the reliability and the accuracy of this technique suffer serious interference, which significantly restricts its practical utilization. Here, a strategy to implement effective luminescence nanothermometry is preliminarily proposed by employing the different thermal responses between
and energy transfer processes. Different from the traditional ratiometric sensing method, where two luminescence intensities are used as the thermal response parameters, we use two intensity ratios between and near-IR emissions that are obtained under dual excitation as the detecting and reference signals to perform temperature measurement. This multiparameter-based, self-reference thermometry technique, as we define it, exhibits excellent immunity to the influences arising from the fluctuation and loss of pumping sources as well as the luminescence attenuation in media. High thermal sensitivity ( ) and good resolution ( ) are successfully achieved here, accompanied by a measurement error of in a biological environment test, while large errors are observed based on the traditional ratiometric approach ( ). We believe the viewpoint in this work could boost luminescence thermometry and provide an ingenious route toward high-performance thermal sensing for biological systems.
We reveal the mechanism of the noncoaxial rotational Doppler effect (RDE) of an optical vortex and report its application in discriminating the orientation of the rotating axis of the rotating body. In most cases of the RDE-based measurement, the beam axis must be aligned with the rotating axis of the rotational body to observe a good signal. Once the beam axis is not coaxial with the rotating axis, the RDE frequency shift would change related to the misalignment distance, which can be called the noncoaxial RDE. Here, we take the advantage of the misaligned RDE augment with precise light-field modulation and successfully realize the discrimination of the orientation of the rotating axis relative to the illuminating beam. We clarify the principle of noncoaxial RDE and explain why the incomplete optical vortex (OV) is sensitive to the position of the rotating axis. We switch the OV field into four quadrants synchronized with sampling by the data acquisition system, and conduct Fourier transformation of the signals. Combined with the fitting algorithm, the orientation of the rotating axis can be recognized directly. This method may find applications for the noncontact detection of rotating bodies in both industrial and astronomical scenarios.
The monolithic integration of Fabry-Perot cavities has many applications, such as label-free sensing, high-finesse filters, semiconductor lasers, and frequency comb generation. However, the excess loss of integrated reflectors makes it challenging to realize integrated Fabry-Perot cavities working in the ultrahigh-
regime ( ). Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrate what we believe is the first silicon integrated million- Fabry-Perot cavity. Inspired by free-space optics, a novel monolithically integrated retroreflector is utilized to obtain near-unity reflectance and negligible reflection losses. The corner scattering in the retroreflector is prevented by the use of the mode, taking advantage of its zero central field intensity. Losses incurred by other mechanisms are also meticulously engineered. The measurement results show resonances with an ultrahigh intrinsic factor of spanning an 80-nm bandwidth. The measured loaded factor is . Ultralow reflection losses ( ) and propagation losses ( ) are experimentally realized.
Helix-shaped tractor and repulsor beams enabling bidirectional optical transport of particles en masse
Three-dimensional programmable transport of micro/nano-particles can be straightforwardly achieved by using optical forces arising from intensity and phase gradients of a structured laser beam. Repulsor and tractor beams based on such forces and shaped in the form of a curved trajectory allow for downstream and upstream (against light propagation) transportation of particles along the beams, respectively. By using both types of beams, bidirectional transport has been demonstrated on the example of a circular helix beam just by tuning its phase gradient. Specifically, the transport of a single particle along a loop of the helix has been reported. However, the design and generation of helix-shaped beams is a complex problem that has not been completely addressed, which makes their practical application challenging. Moreover, there is no evidence of simultaneous transport of multiple particles along the helix trajectory, which is a crucial requisite in practice. Here, we address these challenges by introducing a theoretical background for designing helix beams of any axial extension, shape, and phase gradient that takes into account the experimental limitations of the optical system required for their generation. We have found that only certain phase gradients prescribed along the helix beam are possible. Based on these findings, we have experimentally demonstrated, for the first time, helix-shaped repulsor and tractor beams enabling programmable bidirectional optical transport of particles en masse. This is direct evidence of the essential functional robustness of helix beams arising from their self-reconstructing character. These achievements provide new insight into the behavior of helix-shaped beams, and the proven technique makes their implementation easier for optical transport of particles as well as for other light–matter interaction applications.
Digitally tunable optical delay line based on thin-film lithium niobate featuring high switching speed and low optical loss
A tunable optical delay line (ODL) featuring high switching speed and low optical loss is highly desirable in many fields. Here, based on the thin-film lithium niobate platform, we demonstrate a digitally tunable on-chip ODL that includes five Mach–Zehnder interferometer optical switches, four flip-chip photodetectors, and four delay-line waveguides. The proposed optical switches can achieve a switching speed of 13 ns and an extinction ratio of 34.9 dB. Using a modified Euler-bend-based spiral structure, the proposed delay-line waveguide can simultaneously achieve a small footprint and low optical propagation loss. The proposed ODL can provide a maximum delay time of 150 ps with a resolution of 10 ps and feature a maximum insertion loss of 3.4 dB.
We demonstrate multi-gigahertz continuous-wave mode-locking of a Yb:KLuW waveguide laser. A femtosecond-laser-inscribed Yb:KLuW channel waveguide in an extended laser cavity delivers a fundamentally mode-locked laser near 1030 nm. A tunable few-centimeter-long cavity containing a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber as mode-locker generates self-starting femtosecond pulses with average output powers exceeding 210 mW at repetition rates of 2.27, 2.69, and 3.55 GHz. The laser cavity, which includes a wedged waveguide, is extended by using a lens pair that controls the laser fluence on the saturable absorber for reliable mode-locked operation without instability. The presented laser performance, mode-locked up to 3.55 GHz, highly suggests the potential of crystalline Yb:KLuW waveguides for realizing high-power ultrafast lasers with higher GHz repetition rates in a quasi-monolithic cavity.
Superfast and large-depth-range sinusoidal fringe generation for multi-dimensional information sensing
Among many multi-dimensional information sensing methods such as structured-light and single-pixel imaging technologies, sinusoidal fringe generation is general and crucial. Current methods of sinusoidal fringe generation force concessions in either the speed or the depth range. To mitigate this trade-off, we have simultaneously achieved both speed breakthrough and depth range enhancement by improving both the optical projection system and binary coding algorithm based on an off-the-shelf projector. Specifically, we propose a multifocal projection system and oblique projection method, which essentially eliminates the existence of a single focal plane in the conventional axisymmetric system and utilizes its anisotropy characteristics to achieve a superior filtering effect. Furthermore, the optimal pulse width modulation technique is introduced to modulate the square binary pattern for eliminating specific harmonics. To the best of our knowledge, the proposed method, for the first time, simultaneously achieved superfast (9524 frames per second) and large-depth-range (560 mm, about three times that of the conventional method) sinusoidal fringe generation with consistently high accuracy. Experimental results demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed method in multi-dimensional information sensing such as 3D, 4D, and [
, , , ; (strain)].
Strain rate is an important basic physical parameter in the fields of deformation observation, geodetic measurement, and geophysical monitoring. This paper proposes a novel fiber optic strain rate sensor (FOSRS) that can directly measure the strain rate through a differentiating interferometer that converts the strain rate to the optical phase. The sensing principle, sensitivity, resolution, and dynamic range of the proposed FOSRS are theoretically analyzed and verified by experiment. The experimental results show that the developed FOSRS with a 12.1 m sensing fiber has a flat sensitivity of 69.50 dB, a nanostrain rate (
) resolution, and a dynamic range of better than 95 dB. An ultrahigh static resolution of 17.07 can be achieved by using a 25.277 km sensing fiber for long baseline measurements. The proposed method significantly outperforms existing indirect measurement methods and has potential applications in geophysical monitoring and crustal deformation observation.
Metasurface holography has great application potential in the fields of optical display, optical storage, and security. Traditional metasurface holography uses the well-designed subwavelength structure to modulate the incident laser beam. Although many researches about laser metasurface holography have been realized, metasurface holography based on quantum light sources is rare. Here, we realized quantum metasurface holography through single-photon and multichannel polarization multiplexing metasurfaces, and we compared the quantum results with laser results. Our work proves that quantum light sources can be well modulated by the subwavelength structure of integrated metasurfaces and extend both fields of metasurfaces and quantum optics. This result shows that metasurfaces have the potential for use in various quantum devices to reduce the size of quantum devices, improve quantum efficiency, and enhance practicability, reliability, and accuracy.
Promoting the sensitivity of mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy to the single-photon level is a critical need for investigating photosensitive biological samples and chemical reactions. MIR spectroscopy based on frequency upconversion is a compelling pioneer allowing high-efficiency MIR spectral measurement with well-developed single-photon detectors, which overcomes the main limitations of high thermal noise of current MIR detectors. However, noise from other nonlinear processes caused by strong pump fields hinders the development of the upconversion-based MIR spectroscopy to reach the single-photon level. Here, a broadband MIR single-photon frequency upconversion spectroscopy is demonstrated based on the temporal-spectral quantum correlation of non-degenerate photon pairs, which is well preserved in the frequency upconversion process and is fully used in extracting the signals from tremendous noise caused by the strong pump. A correlation spectrum broader than 660 nm is achieved and applied for the demonstration of sample identification under a low incident photon flux of 0.09 average photons per pulse. The system is featured with non-destructive and robust operation, which makes single-photon-level MIR spectroscopy an appealing option in biochemical applications.
Solution-processed electroluminescent white-light-emitting devices based on AIE molecules and Cu-In-Zn-S nanocrystals
Solution process is a key technique for the manufacture of large-area and low-cost semiconducting devices and, thus, attracts a lot of attention from both academia and industry. Herein, we realized solution-processed light-emitting diodes (excluding a cathode) based on aggregation-induced emission (AIE) molecules of tetraphenylethylene-4Cl (TPE-4Cl) and cadimum-free semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) for the first time. By mixing Cu-In-Zn-S NCs and TPE-4Cl as an emissive layer, a new type of environmentally friendly white-light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) was prepared through a solution-processed technique. After systematical optimization of the as-prepared WLEDs, the corresponding color rendering index can reach up to 87 with a maximum luminance of
. This study may pave a new road to realize AIE-based WLEDs through a solution-processed technique.
Near-field launching and mapping unidirectional surface plasmon polaritons using an automated dual-tip scanning near-field optical microscope
The spatial distribution of electromagnetic fields emitted from the aperture tip of a scanning near-field optical microscope (SNOM), which is called the emission pattern, depends on the geometry of the apex and the material composition of the tip’s coating. In previous works, experimental measurements of the emission pattern from the aperture tip were performed mostly in the far field. Moreover, the corresponding theoretical models were also developed based on these far-field measurements. Here, we have used the automated dual-tip SNOM to systematically characterize the emission from the aperture tip in the near field. In this regard, we have considered three different pairs of excitation and detection tips with distinct geometries. The emission patterns of the excitation tips were mapped using detection tips. Unidirectional surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) at the surface of a gold platelet were launched by an excitation tip and measured in the near field by the detection tip. The experimental results were numerically reproduced by means of the Bethe–Bouwkamp model. This work puts into evidence the applicability of the automated dual-tip SNOM as the only available characterization technique to measure the emission from aperture tips in the near field. The reported asymmetric SPP radiation patterns can find applications in photonic integrated circuits or in biological and chemical sensing.
Active spatial control of photothermal heating and thermo-actuated convective flow by engineering a plasmonic metasurface with heterodimer lattices
Thermo-plasmonics, using plasmonic structures as heat sources, has been widely used in biomedical and microfluidic applications. However, a metasurface with single-element unit cells, considered as the sole heat source in a unit cell, functions at a fixed wavelength and has limited control over the thermo-plasmonically induced hydrodynamic effects. Plasmonic metasurfaces with metal disk heterodimer lattices can be viewed to possess two heat sources within a unit cell and are therefore designed to photo-actively control thermal distributions and fluid dynamics at the nanoscale. The locations of heat sources can be switched, and the direction of the convective flow in the central region of the unit cell can be reversed by shifting the wavelength of the excitation source without any change in the excitation direction or physical actuation of the structural elements. The temperature and velocity of a fluid are spatiotemporally controlled by the wavelength selectivity and polarization sensitivity of the plasmonic metasurface. Additionally, we investigate the effects of geometric parameters on the surface lattice resonances and their impact on the temperature and fluid velocity of the optofluidic system. Our results demonstrate excellent optical control of these plasmonic metasurface heating and thermal convection performances to design flexible platforms for microfluidics.
Active terahertz beam manipulation with photonic spin conversion based on a liquid crystal Pancharatnam–Berry metadevice
Active terahertz (THz) beam manipulation is urgently needed for applications in wireless communication, radar detection, and remote sensing. In this work, we demonstrate a liquid crystal (LC) integrated Pancharatnam–Berry (PB) metadevice for active THz beam manipulation. Through theoretical analysis and simulation design, the geometric phase of the PB metasurface is engineered to match the tunable anisotropic phase shift of LCs under an external magnetic field, and dynamic beam deflection accompanied by spin conversion is obtained. The experimental results show that the device realizes a dynamic modulation depth of
and maximum efficiency of over 50% for the different spin states. Moreover, due to the broadband operating characteristics of devices at 0.7–1.3 THz, the deflection angles are frequency dependent with a scanning range of over to . Moreover, the two conjugate spin states are always spatially separated in different deflection directions with an isolation degree of over 10 dB. Therefore, this metadevice provides a scheme of active THz beam deflection and spin state conversion, and it also achieves both controllable wavelength division multiplexing and spin division multiplexing, which have important potential in large-capacity THz wireless communication.
To achieve better performance of a diffractive deep neural network, increasing its spatial complexity (neurons and layers) is commonly used. Subject to physical laws of optical diffraction, a deeper diffractive neural network (DNN) would be more difficult to implement, and the development of DNN is limited. In this work, we found controlling the Fresnel number can increase DNN’s capability of expression and its spatial complexity is even less. DNN with only one phase modulation layer was proposed and experimentally realized at 515 nm. With the optimal Fresnel number, the single-layer DNN reached a maximum accuracy of 97.08% in the handwritten digits recognition task.
Integrated optical phased arrays (OPAs) have attracted significant interest to steer laser beams for applications including free-space communications, holography, and light detection and ranging. Although many methods have been proposed to suppress grating lobes, OPAs have also been limited by the trade-off between field of view (FOV) and beamforming efficiency. Here, we propose a metasurface empowered port-selected OPA (POPA), an OPA steered by port selection, which is implemented by an aperiodic waveguide array with an average pitch less than the wavelength and phase controlled by coupling among waveguides. A metasurface layer above the POPA was designed to increase wide FOV steering, aliasing-free by polarization division. As a result, we experimentally demonstrate beam scanning over a
FOV. The aliasing-free POPA with expanded FOV shows successful incorporation of the waveguide-based OPA technique with an emerging metasurface design, indicating much exploration in concepts for integrated photonic devices.
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