2023, 11(9) Column
Photonics Research 第11卷 第9期
Generation of quantum-certified random numbers using on-chip path-entangled single photons from an LED
Single-photon entanglement is a peculiar type of entanglement in which two or more degrees of freedom of a single photon are correlated quantum-mechanically. Here, we demonstrate a photonic integrated chip able to generate and manipulate single-photon path-entangled states, using a commercial red LED as light source. A Bell test, in the Clauser, Horne, Shimony, and Holt (CHSH) form, is performed to confirm the presence of entanglement, resulting in a maximum value of the CHSH correlation parameter equal to
. This allows us to use it as an integrated semi-device independent quantum random number generator able to produce certified random numbers. The certification scheme is based on a Bell’s inequality violation and on a partial characterization of the experimental setup, without the need of introducing any further assumptions either on the input state or on the particular form of the measurement observables. In the end a min-entropy of 33% is demonstrated.
Optical antennas have received considerable attention in recent years due to their unique ability to convert localized energy to freely propagating radiation and vice versa. Sidelobe level (SLL) is one of the most crucial parameters in antenna design. A low SLL is beneficial to minimize the antenna interference with other optical components. Here a plasmonic optical leaky-wave antenna with low SLL is reported. Shifting spatial frequency by periodically modulating the electric-field amplitude in a plasmonic gap waveguide enables a free-space coupled wave out of the antenna. At the same time, precise control of the aperture fields by the modulation depth allows for reducing SLL. Simulation results indicate that the proposed design can achieve a high directivity of 15.8 dB and a low SLL of
at the wavelength of 1550 nm. A low SLL below is experimentally demonstrated within the wavelength range from 1527 to 1570 nm. In addition, the low-SLL property is further verified by comparing it with a uniformly modulated antenna. By modulating the guided waves in the plasmonic gap waveguide in different forms, the aperture fields can be flexibly arranged to achieve arbitrary wavefront shaping. It bridges the gap between guided and free-space waves and empowers plasmonic integrated devices to control free-space light, thus enabling various free-space functions.
Integrated optomechanical crystal (OMC) cavities provide a vital device prototype for highly efficient microwave to optical conversion in quantum information processing. In this work, we propose a novel heterogeneous OMC cavity consisting of a thin-film lithium niobate (TFLN) slab and chalcogenide (ChG) photonic crystal nanobeam coupled by a wavelength-scale mechanical waveguide. The optomechanical coupling rate of the heterogeneous OMC cavity is optimized up to 340 kHz at 1.1197 GHz. Combined with phononic band and power decomposition, 17.38% energy from the loaded RF power is converted into dominant fundamental horizontal shear mode (SH0) in the narrow LN mechanical waveguide. Based on this fraction, as a result, 3.51% power relative to the loaded RF energy is scattered into the fundamental longitudinal mode (L0) facing the TFLN-ChG heterogeneous waveguide. The acoustic breathing mode of the heterogeneous OMC is successfully excited under the driving of the propagating L0 mode in the heterogeneous waveguide, demonstrating the great potentials of the heterogeneous piezo-optomechanical transducer in high-performance photon–phonon interaction fields.
Zero-energy topological states, which are protected by chiral symmetry against certain perturbations topologically, localize at interfaces between trivial and non-trivial phases in the Su–Schrieffer–Heeger (SSH) chain model. Here, we propose and demonstrate a method to manipulate chiral symmetry itself to improve the localized interfaces and enlarge the mode volume of topological states in the SSH model, thus optimizing the lasing performance of localized interfaces. As multiple defects corresponding to off-diagonal perturbations in an eigenmatrix are introduced, the topological state expands and extends to extra defects at the topological interface without breaking chiral symmetry. We apply the proposed method in electrical pumping semiconductor laser arrays to verify our theoretical prediction and optimize the output characteristics of the devices. The measured results of the proposed multi-defect SSH laser array show that the output power has been increased by 27%, and the series resistance and far-field divergence have been reduced by half compared to the traditional SSH laser array, establishing a high-performance light source for integrated silicon photonics, infrared light detection and ranging, and so on. Our work demonstrates that the proposed method is capable of improving topological localized interfaces and redistributing zero-energy topological states. Furthermore, our method can be applied to other platforms and inspire optimizations of more devices in broader areas.
Structured light with more extended degrees of freedom (DoFs) and in higher dimensions is increasingly gaining traction and leading to breakthroughs such as super-resolution imaging, larger-capacity communication, and ultraprecise optical trapping or tweezers. More DoFs for manipulating an object can access more maneuvers and radically increase maneuvering precision, which is of significance in biology and related microscopic detection. However, manipulating particles beyond three-dimensional (3D) spatial manipulation by using current all-optical tweezers technology remains difficult. To overcome this limitation, we theoretically and experimentally present six-dimensional (6D) structured optical tweezers based on tailoring structured light emulating rigid-body mechanics. Our method facilitates the evaluation of the methodology of rigid-body mechanics to synthesize six independent DoFs in a structured optical trapping system, akin to six-axis rigid-body manipulation, including surge, sway, heave, roll, pitch, and yaw. In contrast to previous 3D optical tweezers, our 6D structured optical tweezers significantly improved the flexibility of the path design of complex trajectories, thereby laying the foundation for next-generation functional optical manipulation, assembly, and micromechanics.
An optical system for the generation of partially coherent beams with genuine cross-spectral density functions from spatially modulated globally incoherent sources is presented. The spatial intensity modulation of the incoherent source is achieved by quasi-planar metasurfaces based on spatial-frequency modulation of binary Bragg surface-relief diffraction gratings. Two types of beams are demonstrated experimentally: (i) azimuthally periodic, radially quasi-periodic beams and (ii) rotationally symmetric Bessel-correlated beams with annular far-zone radiation patterns.
Metasurfaces provide an effective technology platform for manipulating electromagnetic waves, and the existing design methods all highlight the importance of creating a gradient in the output phase across light scattering units. However, in the emerging research subfield of meta-waveguides where a metasurface is driven by guided modes, this phase gradient-oriented approach can only provide a very limited emission aperture, significantly affecting the application potential of such meta-waveguides. In this work, we propose a new design approach that exploits the difference between meta-atoms in their light scattering amplitude. By balancing this amplitude gradient in the meta-atoms against the intensity decay in the energy-feeding waveguide, a large effective aperture can be obtained. Based on this new design approach, three different wavefront shaping functionalities are numerically demonstrated here on multiple devices in the terahertz regime. They include beam expanders that radiate a plane wave, where the beam width can increase by more than 900 times as compared to the guided wave. They also include a metalens that generates a Bessel-beam focus with a width 0.59 times the wavelength, and vortex beam generators that emit light with a tunable topological charge that can reach
. This amplitude gradient design approach could benefit a variety of off-chip light shaping applications such as remote sensing and 6G wireless communications.
Linear and nonlinear photonic spin Hall effect induced by analog circular birefringence of Bessel-like beams
The spin Hall effect of a light beam is essentially a product of circular birefringence but is rarely demonstrated. Here, we provide a scheme for initiating off-axis circular birefringence based on the spin-dependent wave vector bifurcation of Bessel beams via a single liquid crystal Pancharatnam–Berry phase element. The tilted Bessel beam shows a detectable photonic spin Hall effect. By introducing the nonlinear propagation trajectories, the spin Hall effect is greatly enhanced. More surprisingly, the two spin states exactly propagate along the scaled trajectories, enabling flexible control of the spin separation. This phenomenon is also applicable to other Bessel-like beams with nonlinear trajectories, which have been already reported.
Interaction of colliding laser pulses with gas plasma for broadband coherent terahertz wave generation
Colliding of two counter-propagating laser pulses is a widely used approach to create a laser field or intensity surge. We experimentally demonstrate broadband coherent terahertz (THz) radiation generation through the interaction of colliding laser pulses with gas plasma. The THz radiation has a dipole-like emission pattern perpendicular to the laser propagation direction with a detected peak electric field 1 order of magnitude higher than that by single pulse excitation. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, it provides a deep insight into the physical picture of laser–plasma interaction, exploits an important option to the promising plasma-based THz source, and may find more applications in THz nonlinear near-field imaging and spectroscopy.
Optical leaky fin waveguide for long-range optical antennas on high-index contrast photonic circuit platforms
Long-distance light detection and ranging (LiDAR) applications require an aperture size in the order of 30 mm to project 200–300 m. To generate such collimated Gaussian beams from the surface of a chip, this work presents a novel waveguide antenna concept, which we call an “optical leaky fin antenna,” consisting of a tapered waveguide with a narrow vertical “fin” on top. The proposed structure (operating around
) overcomes fundamental fabrication challenges encountered in weak apodized gratings, the conventional method to create an off-chip wide Gaussian beam from a waveguide chip. We explore the design space of the antenna by scanning the relevant cross section parameters in a mode solver, and their sensitivity is examined. We also investigate the dispersion of the emission pattern and angle with the wavelength. The simulated design space is then used to construct and simulate an optical antenna to emit a collimated target intensity profile. Results show inherent robustness to crucial design parameters and indicate good scalability of the design. Possibilities and challenges to fabricate this device concept are also discussed. This novel antenna concept illustrates the possibility to integrate long optical antennas required for long-range solid-state LiDAR systems on a high-index contrast platform with a scalable fabrication method.
Electrically pumped optomechanical beam GaN-LED accelerometer based on the quantum-confined Stark effect
Micro-nano optomechanical accelerometers are widely used in automobile, aerospace, and other industrial applications. Here, we fabricate mechanical sensing components based on an electrically pumped GaN light-emitting diode (LED) with a beam structure. The relationship between the blueshift of the electroluminescence (EL) spectra and the deformation of the GaN beam structure based on the quantum-confined Stark effect (QCSE) of the InGaN quantum well (QW) structure is studied by introducing an extra mass block. Under the equivalent acceleration condition, in addition to the elastic deformation of GaN-LED, a direct relationship exists between the LED’s spectral shift and the acceleration’s magnitude. The extra mass block (gravitational force:
) induced blueshift of the EL spectra is obtained and shows driven current dependency. A polymer sphere (PS; gravitational force: ) is placed at the center of the beam GaN-LED, and a blueshift of 0.061 nm is observed in the EL spectrum under the injection current of 0.5 mA. The maximum sensitivity of the acceleration is measured to be , and the maximum measurable acceleration is calculated to be . It indicates the simultaneous realization of high sensitivity and a broad acceleration measurement range. This work is significant for several applications, including light force measurement and inertial navigation systems with high integration ability.
Accurate mode purity measurement of ring core fibers with large mode numbers from the intensity distribution only
Mode purity measurement is crucial for various applications utilizing few-mode fibers and related devices. In this paper, we propose a simple and accurate method for measuring the mode purity of the output optical field in few-mode ring-core fibers (RCFs). Mode purity can be calculated solely from the outgoing intensity distribution with high precision. This method is theoretically capable of measuring the mode purity of RCFs that support orbital angular momentum modes with an infinite number of azimuthal orders and has strong applicability to various RCF types and image qualities simultaneously. We demonstrate our approach numerically and verify it experimentally in a few-mode RCF supporting four (five) mode groups at 1550 (1310) nm. A polarization test method is proposed to verify its accuracy. We believe that this straightforward and cost-effective characterization method for RCFs and RCF-based devices can promote the development of mode-division multiplexing technology and its applications.
Optomechanical preparation of photon number-squeezed states with a pair of thermal reservoirs of opposite temperatures
Photon number-squeezed states are of significant value in fundamental quantum research and have a wide range of applications in quantum metrology. Most of their preparation mechanisms require precise control of quantum dynamics and are less tolerant to dissipation. We propose a mechanism that is not subject to these restraints. In contrast to common approaches, we exploit the self-balancing between two types of dissipation induced by positive- and negative-temperature reservoirs to generate steady states with sub-Poissonian statistical distributions of photon numbers. We also show how to implement this mechanism with cavity optomechanical systems. The quality of the prepared photon number-squeezed state is estimated by our theoretical model combined with realistic parameters for various typical optomechanical systems.
Semiconductor microdisk lasers have great potential as low-threshold, high-speed, and small-form-factor light sources required for photonic integrated circuits because of their high-
factors associated with long-lived whispering gallery modes (WGMs). Despite these advantages, the rotational symmetry of the disk shape restricts practical applications of the photonic devices because of their isotropic emission, which lacks directionality in far-field emission and difficulty in free-space out coupling. To overcome this problem, deformation of the disk cavity has been mainly attempted. However, the approach cannot avoid significant degradation owing to the broken rotational symmetry. Here, we first report a deformed shape microcavity laser based on transformation optics, which exploits WGMs free from degradation. The deformed cavity laser was realized by a spatially varying distribution of deep-sub-wavelength-scale (60 nm diameter) nanoholes in an InGaAsP-based multi-quantum-well heterostructure. The lasing threshold of our laser is one-third of that of the same shaped homogeneous laser and quite similar to that of a homogeneous microdisk laser. The results mean that spoiling caused by the boundary shape deformation is recovered by spatially varying nanohole density distribution designed by transformation optics and effective medium approximation.
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