The development of an efficient group-IV light source that is compatible with the CMOS process remains a significant goal in Si-based photonics. Recently, the GeSn alloy has been identified as a promising candidate for realizing Si-based light sources. However, previous research suffered from a small wafer size, limiting the throughput and yield. To overcome this challenge, we report the successful growth of GeSn/Ge multiple-quantum-well (MQW) p-i-n LEDs on a 12-inch (300-mm) Si substrate. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first report of semiconductor LEDs grown on such a large substrate. The MQW LED epitaxial layer is deposited on a 12-inch (300-mm) (001)-oriented intrinsic Si substrate using commercial reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition. To mitigate the detrimental effects of threading dislocation densities on luminescence, the GeSn/Ge is grown pseudomorphically. Owing to the high crystal quality and more directness in the bandgap, enhanced electroluminescence (EL) integrated intensity of 27.58 times is demonstrated compared to the Ge LED. The MQW LEDs exhibit EL emission near 2 μm over a wide operating temperature range of 300 to 450 K, indicating high-temperature stability. This work shows that GeSn/Ge MQW emitters are potential group-IV light sources for large-scale manufacturing.
2023, 11(10): 1606
Zero-index metamaterials (ZIMs) feature a uniform electromagnetic mode over a large area in arbitrary shapes, enabling many applications including high-transmission supercouplers with arbitrary shapes, direction-independent phase matching for nonlinear optics, and collective emission of many quantum emitters. However, most ZIMs reported to date are passive; active ZIMs that allow for dynamic modulation of their electromagnetic properties have rarely been reported. Here, we design and fabricate a magnetically tunable ZIM consisting of yttrium iron garnet (YIG) pillars sandwiched between two copper clad laminates in the microwave regime. By harnessing the Cotton–Mouton effect of YIG, the metamaterial was successfully toggled between gapless and bandgap states, leading to a “phase transition” between a zero-index phase and a single negative phase of the metamaterial. Using an S-shaped ZIM supercoupler, we experimentally demonstrated a tunable supercoupling state with a low intrinsic loss of 0.95 dB and a high extinction ratio of up to 30.63 dB at 9 GHz. We have also engineered a transition between the supercoupling state and the topological one-way transmission state at 10.6 GHz. Our work enables dynamic modulation of the electromagnetic characteristics of ZIMs, enabling various applications in tunable linear, nonlinear, quantum, and nonreciprocal electromagnetic devices.
2023, 11(10): 1613
Light propagation in random media is a subject of interest to the optics community at large, with applications ranging from imaging to communication and sensing. However, real-time characterization of wavefront distortion in random media remains a major challenge. Compounding the difficulties, for many applications such as imaging (e.g., endoscopy) and focusing through random media, we only have single-ended access. In this work, we propose to represent wavefronts as superpositions of spatial modes. Within this framework, random media can be represented as a coupled multimode transmission channel. Once the distributed coherent transfer matrix of the channel is characterized, wavefront distortions along the path can be obtained. Fortunately, backreflections almost always accompany mode coupling and wavefront distortions. Therefore, we further propose to utilize backreflections to perform single-ended characterization of the coherent transfer matrix. We first develop the general framework for single-ended characterization of the coherent transfer matrix of coupled multimode transmission channels. Then, we apply this framework to the case of a two-mode channel, a single-mode fiber, which supports two randomly coupled polarization modes, to provide a proof-of-concept demonstration. Furthermore, as one of the main applications of coherent channel estimation, a polarization imaging system through single-mode fibers is implemented. We envision that the proposed method can be applied to both guided and free-space channels with a multitude of applications.
2023, 11(10): 1627
In-band full-duplex (IBFD) technology can double the spectrum utilization efficiency for wireless communications, and increase the data transmission rate of B5G and 6G networks and satellite communications. RF self-interference is the major challenge for the application of IBFD technology, which must be resolved. Compared with the conventional electronic method, the photonic self-interference cancellation (PSIC) technique has the advantages of wide bandwidth, high amplitude and time delay tuning precision, and immunity to electromagnetic interference. Integrating the PSIC system on chip can effectively reduce the size, weight, and power consumption and meet the application requirement, especially for mobile terminals and small satellite payloads. In this paper, the silicon integrated PSIC chip is presented first and demonstrated for IBFD communication. The integrated PSIC chip comprises function units including phase modulation, time delay and amplitude tuning, sideband filtering, and photodetection, which complete the matching conditions for RF self-interference cancellation. Over the wide frequency range of C, X, Ku, and K bands, from 5 GHz to 25 GHz, a cancellation depth of more than 20 dB is achieved with the narrowest bandwidth of 140 MHz. A maximum bandwidth of 630 MHz is obtained at a center frequency of 10 GHz. The full-duplex communication experiment at Ku-band by using the PSIC chip is carried out. Cancellation depths of 24.9 dB and 26.6 dB are measured for a bandwidth of 100 MHz at central frequencies of 12.4 GHz and 14.2 GHz, respectively, and the signal of interest (SOI) with 16-quadrature amplitude modulation is recovered successfully. The factors affecting the cancellation depth and maximum interference to the SOI ratio are investigated in detail. The performances of the integrated PSIC system including link gain, noise figure, receiving sensitivity, and spurious free dynamic range are characterized.
2023, 11(10): 1635
Nanophotonic waveguides hold great promise to achieve chip-scale gas sensors. However, their performance is limited by a short light path and small light–analyte overlap. To address this challenge, silicon-based, slow-light-enhanced gas-sensing techniques offer a promising approach. In this study, we experimentally investigated the slow light characteristics and gas-sensing performance of 1D and 2D photonic crystal waveguides (PCWs) in the near-IR (NIR) region. The proposed 2D PCW exhibited a high group index of up to 114, albeit with a high propagation loss. The limit of detection (LoD) for acetylene () was 277 parts per million (ppm) for a 1 mm waveguide length and an averaging time of 0.4 s. The 1D PCW shows greater application potential compared to the 2D PCW waveguide, with an interaction factor reaching up to 288%, a comparably low propagation loss of 10 dB/cm, and an LoD of 706 ppm at 0.4 s. The measured group indices of the 2D and 1D waveguides are 104 and 16, respectively, which agree well with the simulation results.
2023, 11(10): 1647
Graphene-based photodetectors have attracted much attention due to their unique properties, such as high-speed and wide-band detection capability. However, they suffer from very low external quantum efficiency in the infrared (IR) region and lack spectral selectivity. Here, we construct a plasmon-enhanced macro-assembled graphene nanofilm (nMAG) based dual-band infrared silicon photodetector. The Au plasmonic nanostructures improve the absorption of long-wavelength photons with energy levels below the Schottky barrier (between metal and Si) and enhance the interface transport of electrons. Combined with the strong photo-thermionic emission (PTI) effect of nMAG, the nMAG–Au–Si heterojunctions show strong dual-band detection capability with responsivities of 52.9 mA/W at 1342 nm and 10.72 mA/W at 1850 nm, outperforming IR detectors without plasmonic nanostructures by 58–4562 times. The synergy between plasmon–exciton resonance enhancement and the PTI effect opens a new avenue for invisible light detection.
2023, 11(10): 1657
Whispering gallery mode resonators (WGMRs) have proven their advantages in terms of sensitivity and precision in various sensing applications. However, when high precision is pursued, the WGMR demands a high-quality factor usually at the cost of its free spectral range (FSR) and corresponding measurement range. In this article, we propose a high-resolution and wide-range temperature sensor based on chip-scale WGMRs, which utilizes a ring resonator as the sensing element and a -based microcomb as a broadband frequency reference. By measuring the beatnote signal of the WGM and microcomb, the ultra-high resolution of 58 micro-Kelvin (μK) was obtained. To ensure high resolution and broad range simultaneously, we propose an ambiguity-resolving method based on the gradient of feedback voltage and combine it with a frequency-locking technique. In a proof-of-concept experiment, a wide measurement range of 45 K was demonstrated. Our soliton comb-assisted temperature measurement method offers high-resolution and wide-range capabilities, with promising advancements in various sensing applications.
2023, 11(10): A44