Intermodal four-wave mixing in silicon waveguides
In this work, we report the modeling and the experimental demonstration of intermodal spontaneous as well as stimulated four-wave mixing (FWM) in silicon waveguides. In intermodal FWM, the phase-matching condition is achieved by exploiting the different dispersion profiles of the optical modes in a multimode waveguide. Since both the energy and the wave vectors have to be conserved in the FWM process, this leads to a wide tunability of the generated photon wavelength, allowing us to achieve a large spectral conversion. We measured several waveguides that differ by their widths and demonstrate large signal generation spanning from the pump wavelength (1550 nm) down to 1202 nm. A suited setup evidences that the different waves propagated indeed on different order modes, which supports the modeling. Despite observing a reduced efficiency with respect to intramodal FWM due to the decreased modal overlap, we were able to show a maximum spectral distance between the signal and idler of 979.6 nm with a 1550 nm pump. Our measurements suggest the intermodal FWM is a viable means for large wavelength conversion and heralded photon sources.
基金项目：Provincia Autonoma di Trento supported this research by the (SiQuro) project within the Grandi progetti 2012 call; Ministero dell’Istruzione, dell’Università e della Ricerca (MIUR)10.13039/501100003407 with the PRIN project NEMO (2015KEZNYM).
Mattia Mancinelli：Department of Physics, University of Trento, Via Sommarive 14, 38123 Trento, ItalySM Optics s.r.l., Research Programs, Via John Fitzgerald Kennedy 2, 20871 Vimercate, Italy
Massimo Borghi：Department of Physics, University of Trento, Via Sommarive 14, 38123 Trento, Italy
Martino Bernard：Department of Information Engineering, University of Brescia, Via Branze 38, 25123 Brescia, Italy
Mher Ghulinyan：Centre for Materials and Microsystems, Fondazione Bruno Kessler, 38123 Trento, Italy
Georg Pucker：Centre for Materials and Microsystems, Fondazione Bruno Kessler, 38123 Trento, Italy
Lorenzo Pavesi：Department of Physics, University of Trento, Via Sommarive 14, 38123 Trento, Italy
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Stefano Signorini, Mattia Mancinelli, Massimo Borghi, Martino Bernard, Mher Ghulinyan, Georg Pucker, and Lorenzo Pavesi, "Intermodal four-wave mixing in silicon waveguides," Photonics Research 6(8), 805-820 (2018)